PECCS 2013 Abstracts


Area 1 - Mobile and Pervasive Computing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Programming Smart Object Federations for Simulating and Implementing Ambient Intelligence Scenarios

Authors:

Yannis Georgalis, Yuzuru Tanaka, Nicolas Spyratos and Constantine Stephanidis

Abstract: This paper leverages previous work on the concept of smart object federations and proposes a new dynamic programming language for implementing and simulating smart objects and their interactions. Following their description in the proposed programming language, smart objects can be fully simulated and used for describing ambient intelligence scenarios. In this context, the contributions of the paper are two-fold: (a) the introduction of a new programming language whose runtime semantics allows for a simple and effective description of smart objects, and (b) the description of meaningful interaction strategies, that are implemented in the proposed language, through which executable smart object federations can be used for simulating and implementing ambient intelligence scenarios.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Embedded System Architecture for Mobile Augmented Reality - Sailor Assistance Case Study

Authors:

Jean-Philippe Diguet, Neil Bergmann and Jean-Christophe Morgère

Abstract: With upcoming see-through displays new kinds of applications of Augmented Reality are emerging. However this also raises questions about the design of associated embedded systems that must be lightweight and handle object positioning, heterogeneous sensors, wireless communications as well as graphic computation. This paper studies the specific case of a promising Mobile AR processor, which is different from usual graphics applications. A complete architecture is described, designed and prototyped on FPGA. It includes hardware/software partitioning based on the analysis of application requirements. The specification of an original and flexible coprocessor is detailed. Choices as well as optimizations of algorithms are also described. Implementation results and performance evaluation show the relevancy of the proposed approach and demonstrate a new kind of architecture focused on object processing and optimized for the AR domain.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Improving User Experience via Motion Sensors in an Ambient Intelligence Scenario

Authors:

Giuseppe Lo Re, Marco Morana and Marco Ortolani

Abstract: Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in Artificial Intelligence that aims at exploiting the information about the environment state in order to adapt it to the user preferences. AmI systems are usually based on several cheap and unobtrusive sensing devices that allow for continuous monitoring in different scenarios. In this work we present a gesture recognition module for the management of an office environment using a motion sensor device, namely Microsoft Kinect, as the primary interface between the user and the AmI system. The proposed gesture recognition method is based on both RGB and depth information for detecting the hand of the user and a fuzzy rule for determining the state of the detected hand. The shape of the hand is interpreted as one of the basic symbols of a grammar expressing a set of commands for the actuators of the AmI system. In order to maintain a high level of pervasiveness, the Kinect sensor is connected to a miniature computer capable of real-time processing.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Password based Secure Authentication Methodology for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors:

Gul N. Khan and M. Zulfiker Ali

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a promising solution for next generation real-time monitoring applications due to its ubiquitous nature, ease of deployment and wide range of applications. The main requirements of a secure WSN architecture are confidentiality, integrity and authentication. User Authentication for wireless sensor networks is a fundamental issue in designing secure WSN systems, where legitimate users are allowed to login and access data from the sensor and gateway nodes. A large number of dynamic strong password and two-factor authentication solutions have been proposed. However, all of these protocols rely on network synchronization and suffer from replay and many logged in users with same login ID threats. We present a secure authentication protocol that avoids replay and multiple login attacks. Our scheme eliminates the need for network synchronization. The scheme is analysed and evaluated for various attacks using SystemC and it provides enhanced security for no extra computing at sensor nodes.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

Design and Configuration of Context-aware VoIP Telephony Systems

Authors:

Slawomir Nasiadka

Abstract: Voice over IP is a widely used concept with regard to a realization technology of different types of telephony systems, including those that are used in enterprises. Such systems consist of a call processing component and a set of desk endpoints that are pervasive from a user perspective. Those endpoints are usually not mobile, but in result can deliver a much greater set of functions needed in an everyday office work (e.g. secretary and attendant features). Those functions also make VoIP telephony systems well suited for using a context information to adapt to the situations of their users. The paper presents an approach to designing such systems from a context-aware point of view and organizing a configuration of their objects. A sample deployment has been prepared and evaluated.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Vision based Environment Mapping by Network Connected Multi-robotic System

Authors:

M. Shuja Ahmed, Reza Saatchi and Fabio Caparrelli

Abstract: The conventional environment mapping solutions are computationally very expensive and cannot effectively be used in multi-robotic environment, where small size robots with limited memory and processing resources are used. This study provides an environment mapping solution in which a group of small size robots extract simple distance vector features from the on-board camera images. The robots share these features between them using a wireless communication network setup in infrastructure mode. For mapping the distance vector features on a global map and to show a collective map building operation, the robots needed their accurate location and heading information. The robots location and heading information is computed using two ceiling mounted cameras, which collective localises the robots. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the required environmental map which can facilitate the robot navigation operation in the environment. It was observed that, using the proposed approach, the near by object boundaries can be mapped with higher accuracy comparatively the far lying objects.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Privacy in Smart Cities - A Case Study of Smart Public Parking

Authors:

Pablo A. Pérez-Martínez, Antoni Martínez-Ballesté and Agusti Solanas

Abstract: Cities are steadily growing and the process of urbanisation is prevalent worldwide. Cities are getting bigger and crowded and, as a result, organisational processes within those cities are becoming more important. With the aim to provide citizens with a better place to live, a new concept of city was born: the \textit{\textbf{Smart City}}.\\ This concept has gained much attention and many ``regular'' cities are taking action so as to become ``smart''. To do so, cities are deploying and using information and communication technologies, with the aim to tackling many local problems from local economy and transportation to quality of life and e-governance.\\ In this article we recall the concept of \textit{Smart City} and its main areas of interest. We discuss that the ubiquitous use of information and communication technologies within the context of a \textit{Smart City} might lead to the transparent gathering of private data from citizens. We focus on the transportation area and, more specifically, in the parking problems that might arise in big cities. We propose a set of procedures, based on privacy enhancing technologies, that allow the private, secure and efficient management of parking in \textit{Smart Cities}.\\ The main goal of this article is to foster discussion about the privacy issues that might arise in a \textit{Smart City} and to provide an example scenario (\textit{i.e.} public parking) to demonstrate some interesting ideas and show some open problems.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

An Efficient Approach to Object Recognition for Mobile Robots

Authors:

M. Shuja Ahmed, Reza Saatchi and Fabio Caparrelli

Abstract: In robotics, the object recognition approaches developed so far have proved very valuable, but their high memory and processing requirements make them suitable only for robots with high processing capability or for offline processing. When it comes to small size robots, these approaches are not effective and lightweight vision processing is adopted which causes a big drop in recognition performance. In this research, a computationally expensive, but efficient appearance-based object recognition approach is considered and tested on a small robotic platform which has limited memory and processing resources. Rather than processing the high resolution images, all the times, to perform recognition, a novel idea of switching between high and low resolutions, based on the “distance to object” is adopted. It is also shown that much of the computation time can be saved by identifying the irrelevant information in the images and avoid processing them with computationally expensive approaches. This helps to bridge the gap between the computationally expensive approaches and embedded platform with limited processing resources.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Making Task Models and Dialog Graphs Suitable for Generating Assistive and Adaptable User Interfaces for Smart Environments

Authors:

Michael Zaki and Peter Forbrig

Abstract: Nowadays smart environments are gaining special attention among the various ubiquitous computing environment types. The main tenet of a given smart environment is to deliver proper assistance to the resident users while performing their daily life tasks. The environment aims to implicitly infer the user’s intention and based on that information, it offers the optimal feasible assistance which helps the user performing his/her task. Task models seem to be a convenient starting point for developing applications for those environments, as they give the developer the opportunity to focus on the user tasks to be assisted. Already existing approaches offer solutions to make the transition between task models and the final user interfaces. However, smart environments are dynamic environments in which the inclusion of new user or device types is probable. Consequently, an optimal application to be operated in such an environment is required to consider the extensibility aspect within its design. Additionally, the implicit interaction technique has to be taken into account. Thus, in this paper we provide an attempt to include the implicit interaction paradigm within the design of our application as well as to ensure the extensibility needed to encounter the variation of the surrounding environmental settings.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

A Buffer Cache Scheme Considering Both DRAM/PRAM Hybrid Main Memory and Flash Memory Storages

Authors:

Soohyun Yang and Yeonseung Ryu

Abstract: As the power dissipation has become one of the critical design challenges in a mobile environment, non-volatile memories such as PRAM and flash memory will be widely used in the next generation mobile computers. In this paper, we proposed an efficient buffer cache scheme considering the write limitation of PRAM for hybrid main memory as well as the erase-before-write limitation of flash memory for storage device. The goal of proposed scheme is to minimize the number of write operations on PRAM as well as the number of erase operations on flash memory. We showed through trace-driven simulation that proposed scheme outperforms legacy buffer cache schemes.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

System Support for Privacy-preserving and Energy-efficient Data Gathering in the Global Smartphone Network - Opportunities and Challenges

Authors:

Jochen Streicher, Orwa Nassour and Olaf Spinczyk

Abstract: Smartphones are becoming the predominant mobile computing device of the decade. By end of 2012 more than 150 million devices have already been sold and the yearly market growth is about 40%. The ubiquity of the smartphone creates tremendous opportunities for collecting and mining data from end users. Smartphones are becoming a global sensor network that could answer questions about user (customer) behavior and their interests, device status, security threats, and a vast amount of derived information such as CO2 footprints, traffic conditions, etc. However, so far only very few market-leading companies, such as Apple and Google, are able to exploit this data source. Even though technologically possible, end user concerns such as privacy protection, energy consumption, and the general lack of incentives, make it difficult for smaller companies and private app developers to make use of the smartphone network. This paper will present the vision of an open system support platform for running flexible “Internet Queries” and “Collective Apps” in the global smartphone network. We analyze the problems of the current state of the art, derive platform requirements, and sketch the envisioned platform's architecture. The discussion will culminate in a list of important research directions to be followed.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

On Protection of the User’s Privacy in Ubiquitous E-ticketing Systems based on RFID and NFC Technologies

Authors:

Ivan Gudymenko

Abstract: The issues of customer privacy in e-ticketing systems for public transport based on RFID/NFC technologies are addressed in this paper. More specifically, having described the target system, the specific privacy threats are identified and respectively classified. This is performed by analyzing the system under concern against the specifically defined privacy properties (pseudonymity, confidentiality, unlinkability). The process of the respective countermeasures development together with the recommendations for their integration into the real e-ticketing system for public transportation are further discussed.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

Revisiting the Informed Consent Principle for Data Release

Authors:

Ilaria Venturini

Abstract: In this paper the Informed Consent Principle for sensitive information management is revisited under the perspective of ubiquitous and embedded computing and of personalized privacy. We claim that an Informed Fair Consent Principle, here proposed, takes into account privacy threats, pointed out in the paper, which may stem from some granted consent. Potential implementations of the fair personalized privacy are shortly discussed.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Wi-City - Living, Deciding and Planning using Mobiles in Intelligent Cities

Authors:

Alfio Costanzo, Alberto Faro and Daniela Giordano

Abstract: The current GPS navigational systems are mainly developed with a proprietary approach based on incomplete information and behave as general purpose information systems based on average traffic data. On the contrary, effective location based services should be based on real time traffic information and should take into account all the databases available at urban scale to help decision making and planning of the mobile users. This paper aims at illustrating how a prototypical distributed information system, called Wi-City, may help people in living, deciding and planning in cities where collective and cooperative intelligence systems will be more and more adopted by the citizens. Indeed, Wi-City is a next generation ubiquitous information system available over an open/interoperable platform to support mobile user decisions by taking advantage from real time data and all the information available on the different databases at urban scale, including the ones stored on the user mobiles.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

The Need for Security in Distributed Automotive Systems

Authors:

Stefan Seifert, Markus Kucera and Thomas Waas

Abstract: The papers main focus is on security in the automotive domain. It gives an overview about the current state of the art in this area. There is a trend to open today’s vehicle architecture to technology known from the consumer segment (e.g. All IP Car). This is mainly motivated by cost reduction, reduced cabling effort and innovative functionality (e.g. car to car communication, intelligent navigation systems). By opening the ar-chitecture in such a way cars are getting more external interfaces which make them more accessible from the outside. Hence, an attacker does not need direct physical access to attack the car anymore but rather can use one of its wireless external interfaces. Using technology from the consumer segment does not only make the software and hardware development easier due to reusability but also makes the car an easier target. Therefore, additional research is needed to harden the automotive and make it more resistant.

Posters
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Towards using Multimodal Features of Social Networks for Improved Contextual Emotion Detection

Authors:

Ahmed S. Rizk, Sherif G. Aly and Mohamed Shalan

Abstract: Social networks are valuable source of information that could be used in classifying users’ emotions. In this paper, we explore the importance of certain multimodal features of social networks, other than text, that can be used in enhancing emotion detection. We study the types of posts, the degree of interaction with contacts, and the influence of contact opinions and how they tend to affect the emotions of social network users. We conducted an online survey targeting Facebook users to know how they are affected by such features. The results of our study show that status messages are the most used feature to express the social network users’ emotions, and the emotions of social network user are affected by posts and updates from friends, especially close friends. The number of likes expressed to social network users was found to positively affect their emotions. We will use such findings to prototype a system for enhanced emotion detection.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Social Pervasive Systems - The Integration of Social Networks and Pervasive Systems

Authors:

Soumaia Al Ayyat, Sherif Aly and Khaled Harras

Abstract: Sensor technology embedded in smart mobile devices branded such devices as candidates for building innovative context-aware pervasive applications. On a parallel front, the notable evolution in the shape and form of social networking and their seamless accessibility from mobile devices founded a goldmine of contextual information. Utilizing an ecosystem that combines both mobile smart devices and a big data like environment in the form of social networks allows for the creation of an elitist set of services and applications that merge the two domains. In this paper, and following the footsteps of similar research efforts that attempted to combine both domains, we describe what we label as Social Pervasive Systems that cross-pollinate a mutually influential mobile and social world with opportunities for new breeds of applications. We present herein the evolution of the merger between both worlds for a better understanding. Above and beyond what related work achieved, we present a set of new services and potential applications that emerge from this new blend, and also describe some of the expected challenges such systems will face.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

Energy Analysis of a Real-time Multiprocessor Control of Idle States

Authors:

Jabran Khan, Sébastien Bilavarn, Khurram Bhatti and Cécile Belleudy

Abstract: This paper focuses on the analysis of a dynamic low power switching technique called assertive dynamic power management (AsDPM) on ARM based platforms. The availability of ready tasks during the execution of a program is random. The choice to when exactly a ready task is executed on certain processor and how many processors are required for the remaining tasks can save a significant amount of energy utilization. This paper focuses on the energy efficiency of AsDPM strategy for real-time tasks, which decides when exactly a ready task shall execute; thereby reducing the number of active processors, which eventually reduces energy consumption. We will analyze the energy gains resulting from the implementation of this AsDPM power strategy for different ARM based multiprocessor platforms (ARM1176JZF-S, CortexA9). Results show significant amounts of gains up to 60% for different execution conditions*.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Temporal Preference Models and their Deduction-based Analysis for Pervasive Applications

Authors:

Radosław Klimek

Abstract: This work concerns preference models and their formal analysis using a deductive approach, i.e. temporal logic for both specification and verification, and the semantic tableaux method for reasoning. The architecture of an automatic and deduction-based verification system for preference models is also proposed. It allows analysis of both desired properties of models and their semantic contradictions. Preference models are built from predefined patterns which enable automatic generation of logical specifications for preferences.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

Implementation of Distributed Mosaic Formation and Object Detection in Modular Robotic Systems

Authors:

M. Shuja Ahmed, Reza Saatchi and Fabio Caparrelli

Abstract: In reconfigurable modular robotics, when robot modules joins to form a robotic organism, they create a distributed processing environment in a unified system. This research builds on the efficient use of these distributed processing resources and presents the manner these resources can be utilised to implement distributed mosaic formation and object detection within the organism. The generation of mosaics provides surrounding awareness to the organism and helps it to localise itself with reference to the objects in the mosaics. Whereas, the detection of objects in the mosaic helps in identifying parts of the mosaic which needed processing.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

eHealth and the Internet of Things

Authors:

Les Ball, Andrea Symkowiak, Simeon Keates, David Bradley and Simon Brownsell

Abstract: To respond to an ageing population, eHealth strategies offer significant opportunities in achieving a balanced and sustainable healthcare infrastructure. Advances in technology both at the sensor and device levels and in respect of information technology have opened up other possibilities and options. Of significance among these is what is increasingly referred to as the Internet of Things, the interconnection of physical devices to an information infrastructure. The paper therefore sets out to position the Internet of Things at the core of future developments in eHealth.

Area 2 - Digital Signal Processing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Analysis of MIMO Systems with Transmitter-side Antennas Correlation

Authors:

Francisco Cano-Broncano, César Benavente-Peces, Andreas Ahrens, Francisco Javier Ortega-González and José Manuel Pardo-Martín

Abstract: Due to its potential performance multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems are being included in the current standard developments. Nevertheless issues like antennas proximity at the transmitter and receiver arrays can limit the achievable performance. Antennas proximity produces a phenomenon called correlation which affects the channel performance by reducing the capacity and increasing the BER. Hence, the aim of this paper is investigating the transmitter-side antennas correlation modelling and effects. Together with the appropriate signal processing (e. g. singular values decomposition), the effect of transmitter-side antennas correlation is studied. Our results show that under the effect of antennas correlation not necessarily all layers might be used for the data transmission since the weighting of the stronger layer within the MIMO system becomes even stronger respect to non-correlated channels. Simulation results are shown to underline these effects.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Symbol Error Rate as a Function of the Residual ISI Obtained by Blind Adaptive Equalizers

Authors:

Monika Pinchas

Abstract: A non-zero residual intersymbol interference ( ISI) causes the symbol error rate (SER) to increase where the achievable SER may not answer any more on the system’s requirements. Thus, having a closed-form expression for the SER that takes into account the achievable performance of the chosen blind adaptive equalizer from the residual ISI point of view is important. In this paper, we propose a new expression for the SER valid for the two independent quadrature carrier case that depends on the step-size parameter, equalizer’s tap length, input signal statistics, channel power and signal to noise ratio (SNR).

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 46
Title:

An in-Field Calibrating Method for the Bilateral Filter Applied to X-ray Flat Panel Grayscale Images with High Spectral Resolution

Authors:

Fabiana Oliveira Paixão Fernandes, Cássio Alves Carneiro, Petr Iakovlevitch Ekel, Zélia Myriam Assis Peixoto and Flávia Magalhães Freitas Ferreira

Abstract: Several spatial filters applied to images are available in technical and scientific literature. Besides the reduction of the noise level, some of them also aim at the preservation of edges and details. Those filters are commonly applied to the processing of X-ray medical image sequences, which are usually noised due to the low doses of radiation suitable for medical procedures but where the loss of any detail may impair a diagnosis. In this context, the bilateral filter is well suited. However, an adequate calibration of the bilateral filter is required for reaching the best cost benefit between reducing the noise level and preserving the image edges. Calibration procedures are still underexplored in the literature thereby, this paper proposes a new method that allows in-field calibration of the bilateral filter embedded into a piece of equipment for angiography, which uses a flat panel X-ray detector. The proposed method can be applied to images with any spectral resolution and surpasses the performance of the calibration method presented in the literature.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

Effective Online Incremental GMM Model Adaptation towards Mobile/Embedded Applications

Authors:

Yongxin Zhang, Jiabing Sun, Navid Ehsan, Jie Zhang and Wenlong Zhang

Abstract: GMM has been very popular in various statistical signal processing tasks. However when it comes to its application in mobile/embedded devices, the computation cost and complexity needed by its training raises a critical challenge in the model implementation. In this short paper, we propose a new method of incremental GMM model adaptation which can be feasible in the small foot-print systems, such as in mobile devices or other embedded systems. The new method aims to perform online model adaptation incrementally based on incoming samples, instead of retrain the entire model together with history samples like traditional GMM model training does. The design goal is to dramatically reduce the memory needs and computation cost of traditional model adaptation when it can still maintain certain level of system performance. The promising efficiency and feasibility of the algorithm can be roughly demonstrated in a synthesis data set, which provides us the fundamental justification to port it to the real mobile/embedded applications.

Area 3 - Embedded Systems Design

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Design-driven Development of Dependable Applications - A Case Study in Avionics

Authors:

Quentin Enard, Stéphanie Gatti, Julien Bruneau, Youg-Joo Moon, Emilie Balland and Charles Consel

Abstract: Making an application dependable demands that its functional and non-functional requirements be stringently fulfilled throughout its development process. In this context, a design-driven development approach has the key advantage of enabling requirements to be traced from their high-level design forms to the resulting executable artifact. However, because such approaches are mostly general purpose, they provide little design guidance, if any. This situation makes unpredictable the coherence and the conformance of an application with respect to its requirements.\\ To address this situation, we propose an approach that leverages a design-driven development process dedicated to a specific paradigm. This approach guides the verification of the coherence and conformance of an application throughout its development. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach by applying it to a realistic case study in the avionics domain.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

Fault-tolerant Scheduling of Stateful Tasks in Uniprocessor Real-time Systems

Authors:

Petr Alexeev, Pontus Boström, Marina Waldén, Mikko Huova, Matti Linjama and Kaisa Sere

Abstract: The recovery block (RcB) approach is intended for masking software faults. This approach can be implemented for real-time systems by establishing primary and alternative versions for each task and providing a fault-tolerant preemptive schedule which masks possibly missed deadlines. Existing scheduling algorithms require rearrangement of tasks parameters during run-time. Applying these algorithms for stateful tasks which keep their state between releases is difficult. We defined two off-line scheduling algorithms: Backwards-Direct-Deadline-Monotonic (B-D-DM) and Earliest-Deadlines-as-Late as possible-Deadline-Monotonic (EDL-DM). These algorithms are based on existing algorithms used for periodic tasks: Backwards-DM, EDL and DM. The main advantage of our algorithms is the ability to calculate all parameters of the schedule off-line and implement RcB for stateful tasks. We propose a feasibility check for the resulting schedule. The proposed algorithm B-D-DM was implemented in a case study of a control system designed in Simulink.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Hardware-software Scalable Architectures for Gaussian Elimination over GF(2) and Higher Galois Fields

Authors:

Prateek Saxena, Vinay B. Y. Kumar, Dilawar Singh, H Narayanan and Sachin B. Patkar

Abstract: Solving a System of Linear Equations over Finite Fields finds one of the most important practical applications, for instance, in problems arising in cryptanalysis and network coding among others. However, other than software-only approaches to acceleration, the amount of focus particularly towards hardware or hardware/software based solutions is small, in comparison to that towards general linear equation solvers. We present scalable architectures for Gaussian elimination with pivoting over GF(2) and higher fields, both as custom extensions to commodity processors or as dedicated hardware for larger problems. In particular, we present: 1) Designs of components---Matrix Multiplication and `Basis search and Inversion'---for Gaussian elimination over GF(2), prototyped as custom instruction extensions to Nios-II on DE2-70(DE2, 2008), which even with a 50MHz clock perform at $\approx$30~GOPS (billion GF(2) operations); and also report results for GF($2^8$) or higher order matrix multiplication with about 20~GOPS performance at 200MBps. 2) A scalable extension of a previous design [Bogdanov et. al, 2006] for multiple FPGAs and with $\approx$2.5 TrillionOPS performance at ~5GBps bandwidth on a Virtex-5 FPGA

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

Distributed Forwarder Selection on Beaconless Routing for Real-time Services in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:

Yongbin Yim, Hosung Park, Jeongcheol Lee, Seungmin Oh and Sang-Ha Kim

Abstract: In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), real-time service is one of the important issues. Typically, existing studies for the service are relied on beacons. Recently, beaconless routing has been proposed to overcome control overhead for resource constrained environment of WSNs. Thus, real-time communication based on the beaconless scheme could give great advantages with less energy consumption. To do that, however, it brings new challenges. For the real-time communication, each node needs to be aware of single hop delay for data forwarding within desired time. In conventional approaches, it is based on delay in neighbor information through beacons. An appropriate next forwarder is selected by a sender. However, in the beaconless scheme, a sender could not select a next forwarder since that is determined by a receiver. Also, contention delay is included in single hop delay for beaconless routing. Thus, the delay estimation principle should be renovated. In this paper, we present a receiver-based real-time routing protocol, called RBRR. We design a novel delay estimation strategy. The single hop delay from a sender to a receiver could be calculated by a receiver but not a sender. Therefore, the receiver itself makes a decision whether desired time requirement is satisfied. Simulation experiments show that the strategy achieves higher performance in terms of energy consumption.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

Using File Systems for Non-volatile Main Memory Management

Authors:

Shuichi Oikawa

Abstract: Non-volatile (NV) memory is next generation memory. It provides fast access speed comparable to DRAM and also persistently stores data without power supply. These features enable NV memory to be used as both main memory and secondary storage. While the active researches have been conducted on its use for either main memory or secondary storage, they were conducted independently. This paper proposes the integrated memory management methods, by which NV memory can be used as both main memory and secondary storage. The proposed methods use file systems as their basis for NV memory management. Such integration enables the memory allocation for processes and files from the same source, and processes can take advantage of a large amount of physical memory used for both main memory and storage. We implemented the proposed memory management methods in the Linux kernel. The evaluation results performed on a system emulator show that the memory allocation costs of the proposed methods are comparable to that of the existing DRAM and are significantly better than those of the page swapping.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Early Energy Estimation in the Design Process of Networked Embedded Systems

Authors:

Patrick Heinrich and Christian Prehofer

Abstract: This paper focuses on estimating energy consumption in networked, embedded systems during the early stages of design. In such systems with long development cycles, early decisions regarding hardware and software have a major impact on energy consumption, which places constraints on the design during later stages of the development process. The main objective of this paper is to model the energy consumption throughout the entire design process and to provide a structure for more detailed models and validation. This requires determining which design decisions and system parameters are available in each of the development phases. Using this approach as a basis, energy consumption models are created for each phase. By relying on different estimation techniques, energy consumption estimates are formulated based on the information that is available at every development phase. The main goal is to illustrate a design flow that produces increasingly accurate estimates in each phase.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

Domain Controlled Architecture - A New Approach for Large Scale Software Integrated Automotive Systems

Authors:

Dominik Reinhardt and Markus Kucera

Abstract: Electric and electronic functionalities increase exponentially in every mobility domain. The automotive industry is confronted with a rising system complexity and several restricting requirements and standards (like AUTOSAR), in particular to design embedded software for electronic control units. To stand against rampant functionalities software units could be restructured according to their affiliation and should not be attached to a certain place. This can be effected by integration on single controllers. On the one hand the system wide amount of hardware controllers could such be limited. On the other hand the workload for integration CPUs will rise. To support this paradigm, multi-core systems can provide enough processing power in an efficient way. This paper shows a first approach to combine automotive functionality on such a single controller.

Posters
Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Reducing Power Consumption in Hydrometric Level Sensor Networks using Support Vector Machines

Authors:

Marco Pellegrini, Renato De Leone, Pierluigi Maponi and Maurizio Ferretti

Abstract: Environmental monitoring is a challeging task for both researchers and technical operators. Data loggers for ultrasonic hydrometric level sensors are compact devices equipped with microprocessor input channels and data storage. One of the critical issues that electronic engineers have to face in designing this kind of sensors is the energy consumption during the sensor startup phase preceding the level measurement. In this paper we propose a new methodology to reduce the power consumption by decreasing the sensor sampling rate when no flood events are occurring. This procedure allows the sampling rate to dynamically self-adapt based on the error between observed and predicted water level time-trend. Support Vector Machines are used to predict the hydrometric level given a limited number of previous samples. The method effectiveness has been tested on a real-world stage-discharge dataset.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

Opportunistic Spatiotemporal Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:

Seungmin Oh, Yongbin Yim, Jeongcheol Lee, Hosung Park and Sang-Ha Kim

Abstract: We propose an opportunistic spatiotemporal data dissemination protocol in order to solve the transmission failure problem in error-prone WSNs. Retransmission is well-known for recovery of transmission failure; however, this may cause the severe time delay possibly to violate the real-time requirement. To solve the problem, our protocol exploits both broadcasting nature and temporal opportunity concept. In a radio-range of a sensor node, there may be multiple neighbor nodes to satisfy the real-time requirement. By broadcasting property, all neighbors can receive a data from a node, and only each satisfying neighbor decides its relay toward the destination by using temporal selection function. The temporal function is related to the tolerable time period to be able to satisfy the real-time requirement. By giving the priority to the node with smaller tolerable time, we have more opportunities to forward toward the destination. That is, even if a node with a long tolerable time waits for the longer period of time, it still has a chance to forward with the real-time requirement. In summary, the proposed protocol attains the high reliability and real-time requirement by removing data retransmission and multiple opportunities with temporal consideration.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

A Novel Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol for Irregular Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:

Jeongcheol Lee, Hosung Park, Seungmin Oh, Yongbin Yim and Sang-Ha Kim

Abstract: Many beaconless geographic routing protocols have been proposed in the wireless sensor networks, and they could avoid the hidden problem by adopting restricted forwarding area, which is nested in the greedy area and includes only mutually communicable nodes. However, these protocols are designed for uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. If voids or hotspots are in the restricted small area, these restricted region-based approaches would be failed to find a forwarding node even if there exist appropriate candidates in the rest area. In this paper, we propose a beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for practical sensor networks. By giving different contention priorities into the mutually communicable nodes and the rest nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication.