PECCS 2011 Abstracts


Area 1 - Mobile and Pervasive Computing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 34
Title:

POINT OF INTEREST AWARENESS USING INDOOR POSITIONING WITH A MOBILE PHONE

Authors:

Paulo Pombinho

Abstract: Although location based applications have been gaining popularity, most positioning devices do not work when in an indoor environment, hindering the development of both mixed and indoor location based applications. In this paper we present a point of interest aware application that shows information to the user that is dependent on his indoor location. To be able to detect the user’s position, we propose a technique, based on the detection of footsteps, and the direction in which they were taken, to be able to calculate the position of the user inside a building. To improve the accuracy of the system, we use information about the buildings floor plan to create a graph that can be used to correct invalid movements.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

TOOTH-TOUCH SOUND AND EXPIRATION SIGNAL DETECTION AND ITS APPLICATION IN A MOUSE INTERFACE DEVICE FOR DISABLED PERSONS - Realization of a Mouse Interface Device Driven by Biomedical Signals

Authors:

Koichi Kuzume

Abstract: Presented is a mouse interface device for disabled persons using tooth-touch sound and expiration signals. It enables disabled persons to operate a personal computer easily using a mouse driven by their tooth-touch and expiration. A bone conduction microphone was used to detect the tooth-touch sound and the piezo film sensors to sense the expiration. Both sensors had superior features including being easy to handle, light weight, user-friendly, and inexpensive making the device practical as a mouse interface for disabled persons. First, we describe the novel method for detecting the tooth-touch sound in conjunction with Dyadic Wavelet Transform to improve the performance of tooth-touch sound detection. The device consists of sensor units that can sense the tooth-touch sound and the expiration signals, an individual adaptive circuit, and an output interface to connect directly with a mouse and Environmental Control System (ECS). Next, we designed the device using Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and realized a prototype of mouse interface with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in practice. Finally, we confirmed the basic operation of the mouse.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

ONLINE ACTIVITY MATCHING USING WIRELESS SENSOR NODES

Authors:

Arie Horst and Nirvana Meratnia

Abstract: In this paper, we explore the capability of wireless sensor networks to perform online activity matching for sport coaching applications. The goal is to design an algorithm to match movements of a trainee and a trainer online and to find their spatial and temporal differences. Such an algorithm can aid the trainer to better observe performance of the trainees in group lessons. We consider fitness-like movements such as those performed in aerobic. We also limit ourselves to only having one sensor node on the trainer and one sensor node on the trainee, however our algorithm scales well to more trainees per trainer. We use Sun SPOT sensor nodes and use the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to capture the movements. The gravity vector is extracted and improved with a Kalman filter using the accelerometer and gyroscope data. An automatic segmentation technique is developed that examines the movement data for rest and activity periods and changes in movement direction. The segmentation and the movement information are communicated with the node of the trainee where the movements are compared. We choose to use Dynamic TimeWarping (DTW) to perform the spatial and temporal matching of movements. Because DTW is computationally intensive, we develop an optimized technique and provide feedback to the trainee. We test all the design choices extensively using experiments and perform a system test using different test methods to validate our approach.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

A FLEXIBLE MIDDLEWARE COMPONENT FOR CONTEXT AWARE APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Cristina Barbero

Abstract: The ever-growing complexity of pervasive and Internet of Things enabled environments raises great challenges to context-aware pervasive application development. In particular, context representation and reasoning methods, as well as middleware and supporting infrastructures for context sensitive application engineering, must have a high level of flexibility in order to cope with the increasing dynamicity and heterogeneity of pervasive scenarios. This paper presents a solution devised to provide the foundations for the development of context-adaptive applications with diverse requirements. The Context Awareness component consists of an extensible and configurable framework that integrates a semantic reasoning module and multiple processing agents providing specialized / optimized processing capabilities. Finally, a case study shows how the adopted solution allows tackling the complexity of context-aware applications development.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

DATA RELIABILITY AND DATA SELECTION IN REAL TIME HIGH FIDELITY SENSOR NETWORKS

Authors:

Nina Peterson

Abstract: Due to advances in technology, sensors in resource constrained wireless sensor networks are now capable of continuously monitoring and collecting high fidelity data. However, all the data cannot be trusted since data can be corrupted due to several reasons such as unreliable, faulty wireless sensors or harsh ambient conditions. Further, due to bandwidth constraints that limit the amount of data being transmitted in sensor networks, it is important that only the high priority, accurate data is transmitted. In this paper, we propose a data selection model that makes two significant contributions. First, it provides a way to determine the confidence in or reliability of the data values and second, it determines which subset of data is of the highest quality or of most interest given the state of the network system and its current available bandwidth. Our model is comprised of two phases. In Phase I we determine the reliability of each input data stream using a Bayesian network. In Phase II, we use a 0-1 Knapsack optimization approach to choose the optimal subset of data. An evaluation of our best data selection model reveals that it eliminates erroneous data and accurately determines the subset of data with the highest quality when compared with conventional algorithms.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

CONTEXT-AWARE SERVICES FOR GROUPS OF PEOPLE

Authors:

Ichiro Satoh

Abstract: This paper presents a framework for providing context-aware services in public spaces, e.g., museums. The framework is unique among other existing context-aware systems in implementing services as mobile agents and supporting groups of users in addition to single users. It maintains a location model as containment relationships between digital representations, called virtual counterparts, corresponding to people, terminals, or spaces, according to their locations in the real world. When a visitor moves between exhibits in a museum, it dynamically deploys his/her service provider agents at the computers close to the exhibits via virtual counterparts. When two visitors stand in front of an exhibit, service-provider agents are mutually executed or configured according to the member of the visitors. To demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of the system, we constructed location/user-aware visitor-guide services and experimented with them for two weeks in a public museum.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

PERSONAL SHOPPING SUPPORT FROM DIGITAL PRODUCT MEMORIES

Authors:

Alexander Kröner, Patrick Gebhard, Boris Brandherm, Benjamin Weyl and Jörg Preißinger

Abstract: Auto-ID as well as traditional identification technologies such as barcodes allow for linking physical products with digital data. Thus products become “smart items”, which may contribute to the consumer's retail experience in future retail environments. In this article, we discuss how digital assistants can utilize so-called digital product memories for personalized support during tasks typically for the interaction between consumer and product. A demonstration system allowed participants of an IT fair to explore various approaches to personalized support on the basis of this technology in a storyline spanning several spaces, some of them public, some private. Feedback gathered from 132 visitors indicates that this kind of support is in general perceived well; however, it also emphasizes the diversity of people's interest in interaction metaphors and means of privacy protection.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

A CONTEXT MODEL FOR AUTONOMIC MANAGEMENT OF AD-HOC NETWORKS

Authors:

Anastasios Zafeiropoulos

Abstract: Management of next generation networks is challenging due to increased complexity imposed by their dynamic and heterogeneous characteristics. The deployment of mesh wireless networking topologies, the support of diverse networking functionalities and the existence of large number of heterogeneous devices make traditional approaches inappropriate. In such environments, the description of the basic networking entities and the interactions that are present, as well as the relationships among them, is crucial. Proper representation may facilitate the operation and management of the network, as well as the optimal adaptation to the current environmental conditions, and thus, optimise the performance of the network mechanisms. In this paper, a context model is proposed for ad-hoc networks aiming to present in detail the correlation among the network entities and interactions in dynamic environments. Specific functionalities that may be designed taking in account the description of the context model are described and indicative implementation scenarios are implemented and evaluated.

Paper Nr: 87
Title:

A REAL TIME CARDIAC MONITORING SYSTEM - Arterial Pressure Waveform Capture and Analysis

Authors:

V. G. Almeida, T. Pereira, E. Borges and J. M. R. Cardoso

Abstract: An arterial pressure waveform recorder and analyser based on a Microchip PIC microcontroller (µC), dsPIC33FJ256GP710 is described in this article. Our purpose is to develop a dsPIC based signal monitoring and processing system for cardiovascular studies, specially dedicated to arterial pressure waveform (APW) capture. We developed a piezoelectric (PZ) probe designed to reproduce the APW from the pulsatile activity taken non-invasively at the vicinity of a superficial artery. The advantages in developing a microcontroller based system show up in decreasing the associate cost, as well as in increasing the functionality of the system. Based on a MathWorks Simulink platform, the system supports the development and transfer of program code from a personal computer to the microcontroller, and evaluation of its execution on rapid prototyping hardware. Results demonstrate that embedded system can be an alternative to be used in autonomous cardiovascular probes. Although additional studies are still required, this probe seems to be a valid, low cost and easy to use alternative to expensive and hard to manipulate devices in the market.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

AdaptO - Adaptive Multimodal Output

Authors:

António Teixeira, Carlos Pereira, Miguel Oliveira e Silva and Osvaldo Pacheco

Abstract: Currently, most multimodal output mechanisms use a very centralized architecture in which the various output modalities are completely devoid of any autonomy. Our proposal, AdaptO, uses an alternative approach, proving output modalities with the capacity to make decisions, thus collaborating with the fission output mechanism towards a more effective, modular, extensible and decentralized solution. In addition, our aim is to provide the mechanisms for a highly adaptable and intelligent multimodal output system, able to adapt itself to changing environment conditions (light, noise, distance, etc.) and to its users needs, limitations and personal choices.

Paper Nr: 97
Title:

ANALYZING MOBILE APPLICATION SOFTWARE POWER CONSUMPTION VIA MODEL-DRIVEN ENGINEERING

Authors:

Chris Thompson and Douglas Schmidt

Abstract: Smartphones are mobile devices that travel with their owners and provide increasingly powerful services. The software implementing these services must conserve battery power since smartphones may operate for days without being recharged. It is hard, however, to design smartphone software that minimizes power consumption. For example, multiple layers of abstractions and middleware sit between an application and the hardware, which make it hard to predict the power consumption of a potential application design accurately. Application developers must therefore wait until after implementation (when changes are more expensive) to determine the power consumption characteristics of a design. This paper provides three contributions to the study of applying model-driven engineering to analyze power consumption early in the lifecycle of smartphone applications. First, it presents a model-driven methodology for accurately emulating the power consumption of smartphone application architectures. Second, it describes the System Power Optimization Tool (SPOT), which is a model-driven tool that automates power consumption emulation code generation and simplifies analysis. Third, it empirically demonstrates how SPOT can estimate power consumption to within 3-4% of actual power consumption for representative smartphone applications.

Paper Nr: 99
Title:

PROTECTING PRIVATE DATA ON MOBILE SYSTEMS BASED ON SPATIO–TEMPORAL ANALYSIS

Authors:

Sausan Yazji and Robert P. Dick

Abstract: Mobile devices such as smart phones and laptops are in common use and carry a vast amount of personal data. This paper presents an efficient behavior-based system for rapidly detecting the theft of mobile devices in order to protect the private data of their users. Our technique uses spatio-temporal information to construct models of user motion patters. These models are used to detect theft, which may produce anomalous spatio-temporal patterns. We consider two types of user models, each of which builds on the relationship between location and time of day. Our evaluation, based on the Reality Mining dataset, shows that our system is capable of detecting an attack within 15 minutes with 81% accuracy.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

ULTRASONIC OFDM PULSE FOR BEACON IDENTIFICATION AND DISTANCE MEASUREMENT IN REVERBERANT ENVIRONMENTS

Authors:

Daniel F. Albuquerque and José M. N. Vieira

Abstract: In this work we propose a frame architecture for asynchronous data transmission using ultrasonic OFDM pulses in reverberant environments. The frame has two different OFDM pulses modulated with BPSK. The first pulse plays an important role, it is used for time synchronization and to demodulated the unknown data in the second pulse by a differential demodulation scheme. The proposed frame architecture proved to be robust to the multipath in different scenarios. Results have demonstrated that it is possible to keep the bit error rate low in the presence of strong signal echos where other techniques fails, moreover, the simulations show that it would increase the reliability of ultrasonic indoor location systems.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 4
Title:

DYNAMIC INTERFACE ADAPTATION FOR UBIQUITOUS DEVICES DRIVEN BY AGENTS AND ONTOLOGIES

Authors:

Milene Serrano and Carlos José Pereira de Lucena

Abstract: Distributed smart-spaces, heterogeneous ubiquitous devices, mobility, constant technological evolution and users with different satisfaction degrees are some of the challenges that concern us when contending with ever-changing systems. Therefore, these systems demand novel technological support, especially to deal with the dynamic interface adaptation focused on ubiquitous devices by considering specific information profiles and the context under analysis. Contributing to this technological gap, we investigated a dynamic interface adaptation approach for ubiquitous devices centered on intentional agents and ontologies. Moreover, we illustrate the proposed approach in the development of dental clinic domain applications, accessed by MIDP devices, limited in terms of memory and processing capacities. Finally, we evaluate our approach by using this case study and some related work.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF PSEUDO TRUE RANDOM NUMBER GENERATION AND SYNCHRONIZATION USING NESTED LINEAR CHAOTIC MAPS BASED ON TMS320C6416

Authors:

Q. Nasir

Abstract: A Pseudo True Random Binary Generator (PTRBG) based on a Nested Linear Chaotic Maps (NLCM) is proposed. Implementing the synchronization of chaotic systems presents a challenge. The paper proposes an implementation of a generation and synchronization method of PTRBG using NLCM and backward iteration synchronization approach. A prototype has been developed through Texas Instruments TMS320C6416 DSP development kit. Randomness tests of the generated bits of the PTRB is performed using the NIST statistical test suite.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

SECURE AD-HOC ROUTING THROUGH A-CODES

Authors:

Giovanni Schmid and Francesco Rossi

Abstract: Wireless ad-hoc networks are very attractive in several application domains, but the very nature of these networks and their cost objectives pose big security challenges, perhaps making them the most difficult networking environments to secure. A particular challenging issue is that of secure routing. In this work we propose to get secure routing for such networks through a special coding technique at the physical layer of radio communication channels. This approach has the main advantage of being applicable to any routing protocol, without requiring modifications to the protocol itself, but with a suitable key management. We illustrate it for the concrete case of AODV, the standard routing protocol for Low-data-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). The resulting analysis seems to indicate that such approach is very promising for LR-WPANs, both in term of performance and energy efficiency.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

DESIGNING PERSUASIVE AMBIENT MIRRORS TO MOTIVATE DESIRABLE LIFESTYLE

Authors:

Tatsuo Nakajima

Abstract: Our daily lives are recently very busy and stressful, and our time spending to keep desirable lifestyle is cut down although we know that high quality lifestyle is very important for maintaining the health of both our body and mind. One of reasons that we tend to lead a sloppy lifestyle is that there is no adequate feedback to us about our current behavior, and it is not easy to motivate us to keep desirable lifestyle in stressful everyday lives. These are especially becoming serious social problems in many urban cities. We are demonstrating a couple of persuasive ambient mirrors whose expression evokes our emotion to motivate to change our current undesirable behavior. In the systems, persuasive ambient mirrors represent adequate feedback to reflect our current behavior to boost our positive emotion to motivate desirable lifestyle and change undesirable behavior by evoking our negative emotion. The paper presents two case studies that motivate desirable lifestyle, and extracts some design issues based on the experiences with the case studies.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

ROBOTS, OBJECTS, HUMANS: TOWARDS SEAMLESS INTERACTION IN INTELLIGENT ENVIRONMENTS - Supporting Complex Cooperative Interactions between Humans and Technical Systems in Real World Scenarios through Cognitive Objects

Authors:

Matthias Kranz

Abstract: Future intelligent environments will be inhabited by humans, robots and ‘Smart Objects’ and allow for seamless interaction beyond the desktop. These environments therefore have to be adaptive, self-organizing, provide autonomous reasoning and integrate a variety of heterogenous hardware, objects, sensors and actuators – which goes far beyond merely interconnecting different kinds of technology. In light of the dawn of personal robotics, these environments should be equally usable and supportive for humans and robots. Manipulation tasks involving physical objects are at core of the interaction in these environments. This places novel challenges on the involved ‘Smart Objects’. We present an approach for supporting robotic systems in the interaction with physical objects while maintaining human usability and functionality by using so-called ‘Cognitive Objects’. We describe our infrastructure to support developing, simulating, testing and deploying of pervasive computing systems, using ROS (Robot Operating System) as middleware, and present several application scenarios. The scenarios are not limited to the robotics domain, but include location-aware services, intelligent environments and mobile interaction therein. Based on our experience, recommendations for the design of ‘Cognitive Objects’ (CO) and environments are given, to address the individual strengths of humans and machines and to foster new synergies in shared human-robot environments.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ADDRESSING TRUST IN OPEN PERVASIVE NETWORKS

Authors:

Carsten Maple

Abstract: Traditional trust models in pervasive networks have considered a local view of interactions between agents within a globalised system and propose trust functions based on reputation and previous transactions. This paper propose a view of trust as a function of the time required to authenticate in order to establish an agent trustworthiness and the Quality of Transaction (QoT) based on the Zero-Common Knowledge (ZCK) authentication scheme. The initial formulation of our model employs graph theoretical concepts accompanied by mathematical representations of the metrics involved in our analysis. Presented model increases user awareness of the distances between multi-agents within the globalised environment.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

USER VERIFICATION FROM WALKING ACTIVITY - First Steps towards a Personal Verification System

Authors:

Pierluigi Casale

Abstract: In this work, first encouraging results in user verification by walking activity using a wearable device are reported. A discriminative machine learning pipeline is proposed for user verification. A general walking classifier based on AdaBoost is used for personalization adding data related to the verified users. An ensemble of One-Class classifiers is created for user verification. This novel technique proves to achieve very high performances from both classification accuracy and computational cost point of view. Results obtained shows that users can be verified with high confidence, with very high value of performance metrics.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

ACCURACY IMPROVING ALGORITHM FOR WIRELESS 3D LOCATING SYSTEMS

Authors:

Maria Luisa Ruiz de Arbulo Gubía, Toni Koskinen and Marc Engels

Abstract: In this paper we propose an approach to improve the object location accuracy and enable better attitude estimation for wireless locating systems. This method combines the position data of multiple tags placed on an object. The algorithm is independent of the technology used to measure the tags position or the methods of pre-processing the data. The algorithm has been tested experimentally with an Ubisense system based on ultra wide band (UWB) communication. It has been demonstrated that the accuracy can be improved by a factor of three down to a couple of centimetres. This improved accuracy allows estimating not only the location but also the attitude of an object.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

AUTONOMOUS FILE SHARING FOR SMART ENVIRONMENTS

Authors:

Jussi Kiljander, Matti Eteläperä and Janne Takalo-Mattila

Abstract: Smart Environment is a physical place where different kinds of devices interact meaningfully with each other to assist and support us in our everyday life. A key requirement for enabling these kinds of smart systems in physical spaces is the ability to share files autonomously between various devices in the environment. In this paper a novel solution for autonomous file sharing between heterogeneous devices is presented. Here autonomous means that the devices interact with each other seamlessly and the heterogeneity of devices and services providing file sharing is hidden from the end user. Our approach is based on presenting information about the files and file sharing protocols by using ontologies and we utilize Smart-M3 as the platform for sharing semantic information between devices in a physical space. To demonstrate our approach for autonomous file sharing in practice we have implemented a meeting application to various mobile platforms.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

YOKAN TABLE - An Intermediary System between Notables and People

Authors:

Kazuya Fujisawa

Abstract: There are a lot of people who want to meet active notables by whom he or she may obtain the chance of as a human being. Currently, the informations to meet notables are scattered in various places on the Web, and we have to view the Web pages either from news sites, word of mouth sites, blog sites, etc. to look for necessary information. However it is troublesome to view the web pages carefully everyday, and it is a problem to overlook the important information. In this study, we aim to make a lot of chances to meet notable people. In order to collect and analysis the information of notables appearance that scattered on the web are collected and analysis, we developed a system called YOKAN (presage) table with the function of notification of newly arriving information on physical table.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

A PORTABLE LOW VISION AID BASED ON GPU

Authors:

R. Ureña, P. Martinez-Cañada and J. M. Gómez-López

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe a customizable aid system based on GPU for low vision. The system aims to transform images taken from the patient's environment and tries to convey the best information possible through his visual rest, applying various transformations to the input image and projecting the processed image on a head-mounted-display, HMD. The system easily enables implementing and testing different kinds of vision enhancements adapted to the pathologies of each low vision affected, his particular visual field, and the evolution of his disease. We have implemented several types of visual enhancements based on extracting an overlaying edges, image filtering, and contrast enhancement. We have developed a complete image processing library for GPUs compatible with CUDA in order the system can perform real time processing employing a light-weight netbook with an integrated GPU NVIDIA ION2. We briefly summarize here their computational cost (in terms of processed frames per second) for three different NVIDIA GPUs.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

MOBILE DEVICE AND INTELLIGENT DISPLAY INTERACTION VIA SCALE-INVARIANT IMAGE FEATURE MATCHING

Authors:

Leigh Herbert and Nick Pears

Abstract: We present further developments of our system that allows direction interaction between a camera-equipped hand-held device and a remote display. The essence of this system is the ability to estimate a planar projectivity between the remote display and the displayed image of that display on the handheld device. We describe how to achieve this by matching scale invariant SURF features across the two displays (remote and hand-held). We implement a prototype system and a drawing application and conduct both performance and usability evaluations. The feedback given indicates that our system is responsive, accurate and easy to use.

Paper Nr: 110
Title:

BOOK’S MARKING - The System for Finding the Books based on Location Information

Authors:

Takeru Yoshihara and Michiaki Yasumura

Abstract: The Availability and use of digital books has greatly increased in recent years, and eBook technologies now allow books to be downloaded and read almost anywhere. While method of reading and experiencing books are changing, method of finding books are relatively unchanged. Most people select books based on their impression of the front cover seen in the library or bookstore, or on reviews found on the internet. In our research we have attempted to enrich the process of finding and experiencing books by developing the “Book’s Marking” system where books are linked to places. In this system, users (“editors” or “annotators”) put information about books on a shared map. In this way information about locations can be linked to the contents of books. For example, the place where the story is set, the area where the author was born, and the experiences of other readers can all be linked together. Once books are linked to places other readers can then find the books that refer to, or are associated with, places that they are interested in, or are visiting.

Paper Nr: 121
Title:

CEILING SENSOR NETWORK FOR SOFT AUTHENTICATION AND PERSON TRACKING USING EQUILIBRIUM LINE

Authors:

Hidetoshi Nonaka and Shuai Tao

Abstract: In the previous stage of our research, we have developed a soft authentication system using a ceiling sensor network. Our aim has been to exclude psychological and physical load caused by using strict biometrics, video camera, and so on. We introduced a notion of distributed personality for authentication and tracking of several persons. Through experimental results, we confirmed that the system could keep track of up to 5 persons. However, it has been found the performance is not enough for practical use, and then we have reconstructed and improved the system. In this position paper, we present the design policy, overview of the network system, and the obtained performance.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

MULTIPLE PEOPLE ACTIVITY RECOGNITION USING SIMPLE SENSORS

Authors:

Clifton Phua

Abstract: Activity recognition of a single person in a smart space, using simple sensors, has been an ongoing research problem for the past decade, as simple sensors are cheap and non-intrusive. Recently, there is rising interest on multiple people activity recognition (MPAT) in a smart space with simple sensors, because it is common to have more than one person in real-world environments. We present the existing approaches of MPAT, such as Hidden Markov Models, and the available multiple people activities datasets. In our experiments, we show that surprisingly, without the use of existing approaches of MPAT, even standard classification techniques can yield high accuracy. We conclude that this is due to a set of assumptions that hold for the datasets that we used and this may be unrealistic in real life situations. Finally, we discuss the open challenges of MPAT, when these set of assumptions do not hold.

Paper Nr: 130
Title:

MOBILE INDOOR AUGMENTED REALITY - Exploring Applications in Hospitality Environments

Authors:

Ana M. Bernardos and Jesús Cano

Abstract: Augmented reality (AR) is been increasingly used in mobile devices. Most of the available applications are set to work outdoors, mainly due to the availability of a reliable positioning system. Nevertheless, indoor (smart) spaces offer a lot of opportunities of creating new service concepts. In particular, in this paper we explore the applicability of mobile AR to hospitality environments (hotels and similar establishments). From the state-of-the-art of technologies and applications, a portfolio of services has been identified and a prototype using off-the-shelf technologies has been designed. Our objective is to identify the next technological challenges to overcome in order to have suitable underlying infrastructures and innovative services which enhance the traveller’s experience.

Paper Nr: 133
Title:

MOBILE IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM - A Low Cost Approach

Authors:

Silvia Anton and Florin Daniel Anton

Abstract: Nowadays biometric data acquisition and processing systems for person identity verification and / or identification are increasingly used (both in military applications – person identification in military operations and war theatres, but also in civilian applications – mobile employee enrolment and accounting systems). Such systems and especially mobile biometric iris recognition systems are expensive and also brings big security issues (loosing such a mobile device can expose the company or can break the cover of a military operation by exposing personal identification data of agents or informants). This paper presents a functional architecture of a mobile, low cost system for biometric iris data type acquisition and processing for personal identity verification. The particularity of this system is that it is a low cost, but in the same time offers an acceptable performance and security level. The paper presents the hardware and software architecture, but also shows how the device is connected with other systems in order to obtain processing and storage capacity for the recognition process. The paper is structured on three chapters presenting the hardware components, the software tools and programs, the connectivity and security issues, and ends with some experimental data and conclusions.

Paper Nr: 137
Title:

UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING NEEDS UBIQUITOUS SOFTWARE - A General-Purpose Computation Model

Authors:

Pierre Drezet

Abstract: This article comments on the issues of integrating software components and runtime environments into embedded devices. The technologies that are used today to deliver applications to consumer devices range from CPU virtualisation to native API-based approaches. A new computing platform is identified in this article that has potential to provide a more technically convergence environment for embedded software integration. The approach simulatneously provides a light-weight hardware-independent application runtime environment that can operate close to the speed of native software.

Posters
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

DYNAMIC HAND GESTURE RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING NEURAL NETWORK

Authors:

Chitralekha Mahanta

Abstract: Vision-based hand gesture recognition enabling computers to understand hand gestures as humans do is an important technology for intelligent human computer interaction. In this paper, a recognition system for dynamic hand gestures is proposed. In dynamic hand gesture recognition, hand is segmented by using background subtraction method. MPEG-7 ART based shape descriptors are used to extract spatial information. Our approach is based on particle filter to extract trajectory features. After collecting suitable features, Radial Basis Function neural network is used for classification. Gesture recognition rate is in the range of 80% to 98%.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

MODELING OF COLLABORATIVE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS USING COLOURED PETRI NETS

Authors:

Percy Igei, Carlos E. Cugnasca and Fabrício Junqueira

Abstract: Production Systems are undergoing continuous changes in order to be more competitive in a globalized market. In this scenario, there is a tendency to geographically distribute the production process to reduce development and production costs. The interaction between these components is characterized by the presence of a high number of concurrent and asynchronous processes. As a result, the development of production systems is a complex and difficult task. To cope with this complexity, this paper proposes a systematic approach for the modeling of collaborative production systems. This approach explores the potential of formal modeling language such as Colored Petri net to represent and analyze the dynamic behavior of the system. Additionally, the publish/subscribe paradigm is introduced to establish the communication in the coordination process of the system.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

PERVASIVE APPLICATION EVALUATION WITHIN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

Authors:

Vassilis-Javed Khan

Abstract: In this position paper, we present a setup for evaluating users’ experience of pervasive applications within a virtual environment. We review existing literature on mixed reality and pervasive application evaluation. A conclusion of that review is the potential of evaluating applications such as location-based services in a virtual environment. Finally, we present our plans of evaluating user experience factors of location-based advertisements in a virtual supermarket, highlight methodological considerations and sketch future research directions.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

FAST TEMPLATE MATCHING FOR UMTS CODE KEYS WITH GRAPHICS HARDWARE

Authors:

Mario Vigliar

Abstract: Template matching is a milestone application in Digital Signal Processing, and sets its roots in fundamental numeric filtering theory, as well as in time and frequency domain analysis. Radio signals, with mass spreading of high bandwidth cellular networks, have become in recent years much more critical to handle in terms of QoS (Quality of Service), QoE (Quality of Experience) and SLA (Service Level Agreement), putting mobile carriers in the need to monitor their network status in a more detailed and efficient way than in past. Here an efficient use case of GPU computing applied to fast signal processing will be illustrated, with particular interest in study and development of a SIMD Linear and FFT-based cross correlation of multiple code keys in air-captured streams for UMTS networks. Developed techniques have been used with success in a commercial available 3G geotagged scanning equipment.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

HELLOARROW - A Navigation System for Smooth Rendezvous using Compass Interface

Authors:

Ryutaro Motora

Abstract: In the days before cellphones, we have to wait at a fixed point for the partner till he or she comes. But now it does not matter where we spend a time till he or she comes, thanks for cellphones. Moreover we can leave a friend who is late, because cellphones helps their catching us up. Therefore it saves our frustration for waiting the partner and decreases a messy search for landmarks. But a new problem comes up. It is bothersome that looking for the partner, who is in unknown position, using only by cellphone. In this research, we propose and prototype a dynamic navigation system which leads directly from a movable user’s point to another movable user’s point using HelloArrow, the intuitive compass interface for comfortable smooth meeting.

Paper Nr: 92
Title:

ENERGY-EFFICIENT SECURITY PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS USING FREQUENCY HOPPING AND PERMUTATION CIPHERING

Authors:

Ismail Mansour

Abstract: The security aspect of wireless sensor networks has taken the attention of numerous researchers in the past several years. It has recently been proven that public keys are now feasible in wireless sensor networks but still consume a lot of processing time and memory. In this paper we propose the use of public keys based on ECC to exchange symmetric keys that will be used to encrypt critical information. In addition, we propose a time segmentation approach that enables the use of frequency hopping time slotted communications. Nodes secretly exchange frequency hopping sequences that enable them to fight against jamming and eavesdropping. We use permutation ciphering technique to protect the information exchanged between nodes.

Paper Nr: 96
Title:

MONITORING AND MODELING BUILDING ENERGY EXPENDITURE WITH SENSOR NETWORKS

Authors:

Erwing R. Sanchez

Abstract: Residential and commercial buildings constitute one of the largest energy consumption sectors in industrialized countries. This paper introduces a flexible commissioning system for maximizing energy usage efficiency in large and complex buildings. The system focuses on energy saving models to efficiently acquire and process sensor network data, thus reducing energy consumption and costs through the whole process. Novel protocol mechanisms are included in the implementation of the network to reduce its energy expenditure while maintaining a reliable communication. Special attention is placed in developing the performance monitoring interface, specifically designed for increasing personal energy consciousness of end-users. The overall system has been implemented at the Politecnico di Torino main site.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

MANAGING CONTEXT DATA IN PERSONAL SMART SPACES

Authors:

Nikos Kalatzis, Nicolas Liampotis and Ioanna Roussaki

Abstract: Current research on pervasive computing is opening the way for convergence between mobile telecommunications and the Future Internet. This paper introduces a novel approach to this convergence in the form of the self-improving Personal Smart Spaces (PSSs). One of the core aspects that need to be supported within PSSs is the management of the user related context information. This paper elaborates on the mechanisms that have been designed and implemented in order to address the advanced requirements of PSSs regarding the establishment of a robust distributed context management framework.

Paper Nr: 117
Title:

CONTEXT-AWARE REASONING ENGINE WITH HIGH LEVEL KNOWLEDGE FOR SMART HOME

Authors:

Jiaqi Zhu, Lee Vwen Yen, Jit Biswas and Mounir Mokhtari

Abstract: We are interested in providing people living or working in smart home environment with sensor network based assistive technology. We propose a novel rule-based reasoning engine that could be used in ubiquitous environments to infer logical consequences from events received over a sensor network. We introduce methods for rule design with high level knowledge input and using minimum information to infer micro-context. Personalised profiles can be introduced into the reasoning engine to customise features for a particular user using our rule refinement and generation module. New mechanism for sensor-engine communication is also introduced. As a proof of concept, a prototype system (using DROOLS) has been developed to demonstrate the functionalities of our reasoning engine in a simulated smart home environment.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

AUGMENT OPEN AND DISTRIBUTED SOCIAL NETWORKING WITH CONTEXT AWARENESS

Authors:

Claudio Venezia and Carlo Licciardi

Abstract: Nowadays Social Networking phenomenon is gaining a significant momentum. Social Network’s users are disclosing a lot of information about their relationships, profiles, preferences and interests but also an increasing amount of multimedia contents. The Web is being populated by Social Networking Web sites which are introducing fragmentation and mining future evolutions. In this position paper we propose a concrete alternative to the current state of the art, to overcome vertical silos' aggregation and enable open, distributed and Context Aware Social Networking focusing on users’ privacy and data ownership.

Paper Nr: 125
Title:

COMMUNICATE GREEN - Energy Efficient Mobile Communication

Authors:

Abdulbaki Uzun

Abstract: In order to fulfill today’s high demands on mobile network usage, mobile network providers in Germany have around 100.000 base stations working 24/7. The permanent availability of those network components causes a significant energy consumption. Through an adaptive and context-aware power management in mobile networks, a considerable amount of energy can be saved by maintaining the high quality of experience at the same time. There are a lot of contextual information present in mobile network components and end devices, which can help to calculate decisions for a dynamic de- and reactivation of network components. This position paper discusses the idea of a context entity that aggregates and processes various types of contextual information, and the integration of it into the mobile network architecture.

Paper Nr: 126
Title:

MINDROAD - Route Memory Support System using a Smart Phone

Authors:

Taiki Ueno and Michiaki Yasumura

Abstract: Ideally, when one is going to a destination when knows how to get there. But, even if one doesn’t know the way in detail, having a sense of the direction and roughly how to get there is very helpful. One can also ask for directions from other people or use tools such as maps and navigation systems. However, there is always a risk of getting lost, getting given the wrong directions, or having a tool be unavailable (e.g., because a Website is down or a device runs out of batteries). Thus knowing the way to destinations is useful knowledge. In this research, we have developed a prototype system that helps users memorize the route to their destination more easily. With this system, the user first taps the starting point and the goal point in the map on a smart phone. Then, the route is shown, and views of important waypoints such as major intersections are reproduced continuously. In addition, we propose a method for automatically detecting routes that users often pass, as well as similar routes to the current one.

Paper Nr: 127
Title:

INTELLIGENT MULTI-DEVICE USER INTERFACES

Authors:

Mario Vega Barbas and Juan R. Velasco

Abstract: Interfaces represent the point of interaction between users and systems, defining their adaptability level in terms of usability and accessibility. These interfaces must advance in the same direction as the information society, where all objects of the world around us are being introduced like services to create the Internet of Things, and so, the Internet of The Future. Therefore, the new interfaces must guarantee that users have access to all information and functionality that the new Internet can provide. Those advances require a new develop interface concept where systems can create interfaces according to applications and users needs, always in a proactive form. In this way, the work presented in this paper tries to define a new semantic and architectural model to create intelligent and multi-device interface which may be adapted proactively according to the context and each users requirements.

Area 2 - Digital Signal Processing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 63
Title:

PARTIAL UPDATE CONJUGATE GRADIENT ALGORITHMS FOR ADAPTIVE FILTERING

Authors:

Bei Xie and Tamal Bose

Abstract: In practice, computational complexity is an important consideration of an adaptive signal processing system. A well-known approach to controlling computational complexity is applying partial update (PU) adaptive filters. In this paper, a partial update conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm is employed. Theoretical analyses of mean and mean-square performance are presented. The simulation results of different PU CG algorithms are shown. The performance of PU CG algorithms are also compared with PU recursive least squares (RLS) and PU Euclidean direction search (EDS) algorithms.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 12
Title:

LATENT SEMANTIC INDEXING USING MULTIRESOLUTION ANALYSIS

Authors:

Tareq Jaber

Abstract: Latent semantic indexing (LSI) is commonly used to match queries to documents in information retrieval (IR) applications. It has been shown to improve the retrieval performance, as it can deal with synonymy and polysemy problems. This paper proposes a hybrid approach which can improve result accuracy significantly. Evaluation of the approach based on using the Haar wavelet transform (HWT) as a preprocessing step for the singular value decomposition (SVD) in the LSI system is presented, using Donoho′s thresholding with the transformation in HWT. Furthermore, the effect of different levels of decomposition in the HWT process is investigated. The experimental results presented in the paper confirm a significant improvement in performance by applying the HWT as a preprocessing step using Donoho′s thresholding.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

MODULATION-MODE ASSIGNMENT FOR SVD-ASSISTED MULTIUSER MIMO SYSTEMS WITH CORRELATION

Authors:

César Benavente-Peces and Francisco Cano-Broncano

Abstract: Multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) downlink (DL) transmission schemes experience both multiuser interference as well as inter-antenna interference. The singular value decomposition provides an appropriate mean to process channel information and allows us to take the individual user’s channel characteristics into account rather than treating all users channels jointly as in zero-forcing (ZF) multiuser transmission techniques. However, uncorrelated MIMO channels has attracted a lot of attention and reached a state of maturity. By contrast, the performance analysis in the presence of antenna fading correlation, which decreases the channel capacity, requires substantial further research. The joint optimization of the number of activated MIMO layers and the number of bits per symbol along with the appropriate allocation of the transmit power shows that not necessarily all user-specific MIMO layers has to be activated in order to minimize the overall BER under the constraint of a given fixed data throughput.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

COMBINED BLIND EQUALIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF MULTIPLE SIGNALS

Authors:

Barathram Ramkumar and Tamal Bose

Abstract: A multiuser automatic modulation classifier (MAMC) is an important component of a multiantenna cognitive radio (CR) receiver that helps the radio to better utilize the spectrum. MAMC identifies the modulation schemes of multiple users in a frequency band simultaneously. A multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) blind equalizer is another important component of a multiantenna CR receiver that improves symbol detection performance by reducing inter symbol interference (ISI) and inter user interference (IUI). In a CR scenario, it is preferable to also consider the performance of the automatic modulation classifier (AMC) while designing the blind equalizer. In this paper we propose a MIMO blind equalizer that improves the performance of both multiuser symbol detection and cumulant based MAMC.

Paper Nr: 104
Title:

ULTRASONIC OFDM PULSE DETECTION FOR TIME OF FLIGHT MEASUREMENT OVER WHITE GAUSSIAN NOISE CHANNEL

Authors:

Daniel F. Albuquerque and José M. N. Vieira

Abstract: In this paper we evaluate the probability of detection and the probability of false alarm for an OFDM pulse over AWGN channel. This type of pulse is useful for indoor location systems using ultrasounds due to the ability to accurately measure the time of flight by pulse detection while transmitting some data. Moreover, we can avoid the RF auxiliary channel by using an OFDM-based sync. The probability of OFDM pulse detection over white Gaussian noise will be presented as function of the probability of false alarm when a threshold technique is employed at the receiver. Furthermore, the pulse detection probability will be compared with a chirp pulse.

Paper Nr: 114
Title:

OFDM INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS WITH DIRTY RF

Authors:

Zheng Chang and Natalia Ermolova

Abstract: When passing through the RF analog electronics devices of the transceiver, the information signal is subject to various distortions named ’dirty RF’,which degrades the communication system performance.In this paper, we first overview dirty RF effects and then propose an analytical evaluation of the performance of OFDM system where I/Q imbalance, HPA , and phase noise effects are jointly taken into account. We also give an overview of the existed algorithms which can compensate for each RF impairments. Different parameters of these impairments are applied in order to analyze how these RF impairments affect the whole system performance.

Posters
Paper Nr: 40
Title:

AN APPROXIMATION OF GAUSSIAN PULSES

Authors:

Sorin Pohoaţă

Abstract: A new technique for generating an approximate replica of Gaussian pulses with good accuracy is proposed and investigated. The Gaussian function is approximated with a waveform that results from the convolution of two triangles. The proposed pulse performs better than other previously reported pulse. The results show good agreement not only for the Gaussian pulse but also for its first and second derivatives. As the triangular pulse generator is standard and widely used, the proposed technique needs besides it an appropriate filter.

Area 3 - Embedded Systems Design

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

A STUDY ON REAL-TIME RESPONSIVENESS ON VIRTUALIZATION BASED MULTI-OS EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

Authors:

Yuki Kinebuchi, Hitoshi Mitake, Yohei Yasukawa and Takushi Morita

Abstract: Despite the strong requirement of supporting deterministic real-time scheduling on virtualization based multi-OS embedded systems, which enables co-location of a real-time operating system and a general-purpose operating system on a single device, there are few investigations in the real-world hardware. In this paper we introduce our virtualization layer called SPUMONE, which runs on single-core and multi-core SH-4A processors. SPUMONE achieves the low overhead, and requires a small amount of engineering efforts to modify guest OS kernels for executing on SPUMONE. SPUMONE now can execute the TOPPERS real-time OS and Linux as a general-purpose OS concurrently on a single embedded platform. In addition we propose two techniques to mitigate the interference of Linux to the real-time responsiveness of RTOS. The first technique leverages the interrupt priority level mechanism supported by the SH-4A processor. The second is the proactive migration of a virtual core among physical cores to prevent the Linux kernel activity from blocking the interrupts assigned to RTOS. The evaluation shows that our techniques can decrease the interrupt latency of RTOS entailed by Linux. In addition, sharing a physical core between RTOS and Linux will increase total processor utilization.  

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

ENHANCING FPGA ROBUSTNESS VIA GENERIC MONITORING IP CORES

Authors:

Alexander Biedermann, Thorsten Piper, Lars Patzina, Sven Patzina and Sorin A. Huss

Abstract: Today, state of the art technology allows a very dense integration of embedded HW/SW designs. As a consequence, more errors are introduced in these circuits that have to be observed during run-time. Adding monitors to a design enables the recognition of and the reaction to these threats, but, usually, monitors have to be developed for every individual FPGA design. Our approach provides generic IP cores that permit the monitoring of arbitrary hardware modules. Furthermore, by providing a central monitoring module, statements about the behaviour of the entire system can be made.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

TESTING A SOFTWARE-BASED PID CONTROLLER USING METAMORPHIC TESTING

Authors:

T. Y. Chen and F.-C Kuo

Abstract: The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is ubiquitous in industrial and military systems. Almost all PID controllers are now implemented as software in a microcontroller. Control systems are required to have very high reliability, particularly as they are regularly used in safety-critical systems. An effective testing technique is essential to achieve reliable PID controller software. Unlike simple control algorithms, PID controllers are capable of manipulating the process inputs based on the history and rate of change of the signal. It is very difficult to know whether the computation of the software is correct from the computed outputs. Previous research in other areas has shown that metamorphic testing is an effective technique for this kind of problem. In this paper, we examine metamorphic testing in the context of testing an embedded software PID controller based on the free sample code from ATMEL Corporation. We show that metamorphic testing killed all mutants inserted into the controller software, demonstrating the utility of the technique in testing control systems.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

TILED CELLULAR AUTOMATA FOR AREA-EFFICIENT DISTRIBUTED RANDOM NUMBER GENERATORS

Authors:

Bernard Girau and Nikolaos Vlassopoulos

Abstract: Generating multiple random numbers in a parallel fashion for scientific simulations is an intense task that requires significant hardware resources. In our present work we focus on an existing Cellular Automaton and present an efficient architecture that reuses this CA to generate pseudo random numbers in a two dimensional context.

Paper Nr: 93
Title:

AN EFFICIENT ROUTER ARCHITECTURE FOR NETWORK ON CHIP

Authors:

A. Shahrabi and A. Ahmadinia

Abstract: Efficient buffer management is not only instrumental in the overall performance of the on-chip networks but also greatly affects the network energy consumption. In fact, any improvement or deterioration of network performance and energy budget is the net result of increasing buffer utilisation (storing blocked flits) and reducing buffer utilisation (delivering buffered flits). In order to improve the network performance and efficiently utilising the available routers buffer space in NoCs, a new router architecture, called Pool-Buffering (PB), is proposed in this paper. By exploiting a flexible ring buffer structure, the buffer space of the proposed architecture is shared amongst all input channels; allocating more buffer to the busy input channels and less to the idle ones. Implementation results show up to 50% in reducing power consumption when compared to a traditional router. Moreover, our extensive simulation study shows that the proposed router architecture enhances the network performance by increasing the acceptance traffic rate and decreasing the average message latency.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

DYNAMIC LOW POWER RECONFIGURATIONS OF REAL-TIME EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

Authors:

Xi Wang

Abstract: This paper deals with low power dynamic reconfigurations of real-time embedded systems. A reconfiguration scenario means the addition, removal or update of tasks in order to save the whole system at the occurrence of hardware/software faults, or also to improve its performance at run-time. When such a scenario is applied, the energy consumption can be increased or some real-time constraints can be violated. An agent-based architecture is defined where an intelligent software agent is proposed to check each dynamic reconfiguration scenario and to suggest for users useful technical solutions that minimize the energy consumption. It proposes first of all to modify periods, or to reduce execution times of tasks or finally to remove some of them. Users should choose one of these solutions in order to guarantee a low power consumption satisfying limitations in capacities of used batteries. We developed and tested a tool supporting all these services to be evaluated in the research work.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

MOTION CAPTURE OF AN ANIMATED SURFACE VIA SENSORS' RIBBONS - Surface Reconstruction via Tangential Measurements

Authors:

Nathalie Sprynski

Abstract: This paper deals with the motion capture of physical surfaces via a curve acquisition device. This device is a ribbon of sensors, named Ribbon Device, providing tangential measurements, allowing to reconstruct its 3D shape via an existing geometric method. We focus here on the problem of reconstructing animated surfaces, from a finite number of curves running on these surfaces, acquired with the Ribbon Device. This network of spatial curves is organized according a comb structure allowing to adjust these curves with respect to a reference curve, and then to develop a global C1 reconstruction method based on the mesh of ribbon curves together with interpolating transversal curves. Precisely, at each time position the surface is computed from the previous step by an updating process.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

PROVIDING ALARM DELIVERY GUARANTEES IN HIGH-RATE INDUSTRIAL WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK DEPLOYMENTS

Authors:

José Cecílio and João Costa

Abstract: We are witnessing a large increase of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) deployments, used to sense, monitor and act on the environment, because cable-free solutions are easier to deploy. However, in industrial applications, WSNs still aren’t seen as a viable option because of the required fast sampling rates and the reduced time delay, particularly in a multi-hop deployment where traffic congestion may occur. Message losses are unacceptable, particularly in what concerns critical messages containing actuation instructions or other urgent data, which may have time-constraint requirements that cannot be guaranteed. Our research focuses on integrating traffic-aware data processing strategies and network traffic prioritization to overcome congestion states, in order to guarantee that urgent alarms and commands are enacted in time. Traffic is divided into urgent messages (alarms and actuation commands), that have time-delivery requirements; and the remaining periodic sensed data. In this paper we propose an integrated approach NetDP, which applies adaptable data processing strategies (DP) and traffic reduction (DP-Manager) policies to ensure that application requirements are satisfied with minimal message losses, while simultaneously guaranteeing timely delivery of alarms. We demonstrate that NETDP solution with different data processing strategies and levels of system stress can efficiently guarantee the timely delivery of alarms and actuation messages.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

ANALYSIS OF DETERMINISTIC END-TO-END DELAY IN MULTI-HOP AFDX AVIONICS NETWORK SYSTEM

Authors:

Xiaoqiang Ji, Jian Li and Huanzhong Li

Abstract: Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX) is a deterministic communication protocol for real-time applications on Ethernet media. It is a promising technique that can improve the interconnection of electronic devices in an aircraft. One of the key challenges in employing AFDX is to determine the transmission delay in such a network. This paper aims at handling this challenge by theoretical analysis. A network calculus-based approach is presented for analyzing the end-to-end transmission delay of virtual links in an AFDX network that may consist of many network nodes with different scheduling disciplines. We further improve the approach by taking the specific effects of virtual links into account. In addition, we conduct a simulation to verify the validity of our approach. Simulation results show that switches with different scheduling disciplines can improve the delay performance in a multi-hop network.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

AN IMPROVED ON-CHIP DEBUG ARCHITECTURE FOR SPARC PROCESSOR BASED ON SHADOW SCAN TECHNIQUE

Authors:

Liu Peng

Abstract: Because of the increasing design complexity of embedded microprocessors, pre–silicon verification in design stage is insufficient to eliminate bugs (electrical and functional) and nonconforming chip behaviour can still be found after the design is manufactured. Therefore, on–chip debug is becoming a key step both in the implementation flow for the purpose of identifying and fixing design errors that have escaped pre–silicon verification and in software development. In this paper, we present a new method of using improved shadow scan architecture in the debug procedure which involves general–purpose registers in OpenSPARC T2 processor and illustrate the mechanism of this logic and function module. The proposed architecture is suitable for debugging work in practical embedded application, and provides more observability and controllability which can reduce the time of scanning specified register window to 1/16 at the most.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

AUTOMATIC CONTACTLESS MOBILE FINGERPRINTING SYSTEM

Authors:

M. Baier, S. Foret, V. Oliyil Kunnil and M. Paradis

Abstract: Increased security requirements relevant to the worldwide war against terrorism and cyber crime recently prompted the development of biometric systems for use in identifying individuals at commercial facilities, border crossings, airports, and government building access points. Fingerprinting is one of the oldest means of biometric identification; however, the current methods of fingerprint capture carry inherent limitations on image quality. The current study describes the development of a novel, mobile, and contactless fingerprinting system. This system combines the advantages of contactless fingerprinting with the ability to create a digital map of the blood vessels within a finger for use as a second data set for use in biometric identification. The distinguishing feature of the system is the use of line scanning technology which allows for the acquisition of nearly distortion-less 180o or “nail-to-nail” fingerprints. The study describes a fully automatic system and assesses the technical aspects of this novel device. We describe the design of the subsystems: adaptive lighting, optical image formation, power management methods, wireless data transfer, and subsystem synchronization techniques. We will also discuss the system’s embedded software, which synchronizes the operation of all subsystems and allows for fingerprint visualization on an onboard touch screen display.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF RTOS USING MULTIPLE REGISTER FILES ARCHITECTURE

Authors:

Jong-Woong Kim and Soo-Hyun Kwon

Abstract: In recent years, real-time operating systems (RTOS) have been becoming more and more important in embedded systems because of increasing the number of task with complex functions and the need of faster response time. Faster response time is strongly related to the task context switch time and especially task context switch time is the most important factor to determine the performance of RTOS. Most embedded systems are suffering from processing it. In this paper, we present the technique to improve the performance of RTOS by reducing the task context switch overhead. To achieve this goal, we suggest multiple register files architecture and a task to register file mapping algorithm based on rate monotonic (RM) scheduling algorithm for efficiently using our new architecture. Also we show the experimental results to improving our technique using ATmega103 implementation in FPGA. As a result we can decrease the task context switch overhead up to 23% depend on the number of register files even though there are some area overheads by increasing the number of register files.

Paper Nr: 106
Title:

ENFORCING DEPENDABILITY AND TIMELINESS IN CANELy - Application to Spaceborne Data Communication Systems

Authors:

José Rufino, Paulo Verissimo and Ricardo Pinto

Abstract: The Controller Area Network (CAN) has played along the last decade a crucial role in the design and implementation of distributed embedded systems. However, the native CAN protocol exhibits a set of availability, reliability and timeliness limitations. Given the large practical base of off-the-shelf microcontrollers integrating standard CAN interfaces and the emergence of CAN protocol open cores, a fundamental question is whether (and how) those components can be used for highly dependable applications of CAN? This paper identifies a fundamental set of shortcomings of the native CAN protocol and discusses how existing CAN controllers can be combined with additional hardware/software components to secure the provisioning of strict dependability and timeliness guarantees. Furthermore, the paper discusses the main issues in the design and implementation of CANELy, a CAN-based infrastructure able of extremely reliable hard real-time communication, and shows how CANELy components can be integrated in the onboard data communication and processing infrastructure currently being designed for future space vehicle avionics.

Paper Nr: 119
Title:

INTRODUCING A NEW HALL EFFECT SENSOR - Novel Dynamic Offset Reduction Method

Authors:

Vlassis N. Petoussis and Panos Dimitropoulos

Abstract: Silicon Hall plates show an offset of a few millitesla. A large portion of this offset is caused by mechanical stress in the device. The offset can be reduced when the spinning - current principle is applied. In this paper we present a model and numerical analysis of a new Hall effect sensor which using a novel offset reduction method. We call it “Wheel Hall Senor” and senses all 3 filed dimensions. The flux-density of BZ is proportional to the DC component of the output signal, whereas the BX and BY components are proportional to the first harmonic of the output signal. Furthermore we calculate the function which governs the changes in the electric field inside the new Hall effect sensor in presence of magnetic field. This function help us to control in MatLab environment the equipotential lines and to monitor the changes in biasing conditions. About the new sensor, the combination of his pioneering form and the elaborate sequence of using the dynamic spinning current technique, could be lead to satisfactory results of produced Hall voltage with small noise in a presence of external magnetic field.

Paper Nr: 131
Title:

SYMMETRY AND STABILITY OF HOMOGENEOUS FLOCKS

Authors:

J. J. P. Veerman

Abstract: The study of the movement of flocks, whether biological or technological, is motivated by the desire to understand the capability of coherent motion of a large number of agents that only receive very limited information. In a biological flock a large group of animals seek their course while moving in a more or less fixed formation. It seems reasonable that the immediate course is determined by leaders at the boundary of the flock. The others follow: what is their algorithm? The most popular technological application consists of cars on a one-lane road. The light turns green and the lead car accelerates. What is the efficient algorithm for the others to closely follow without accidents? In this position paper we present some general questions from a more fundamental point of view. We believe that the time is right to solve many of these questions: they are within our reach.

Paper Nr: 134
Title:

DOUBLE PRECISION SPARSE MATRIX VECTOR MULTIPLICATION ACCELERATOR ON FPGA

Authors:

Sumedh Attarde, Siddharth Joshi and Yash Deshpande

Abstract: In this paper, we present the design of an embedded system performing double precision sparse matrix vector multiplication (SpMxV), a key scientific computation kernel in iterative solvers, for very large matrices (millions of rows). The embedded system is implemented using the Xilinx MicroBlaze platform on the XUPV5-LX110T FPGA development board. Due to their size, matrices generally encountered in scientific computation need to be stored on off-chip DRAMs. A novel processing paradigm involving blocking of the matrix, and a novel data access mechanism which pre-fetches required data in bursts from off-chip DRAMS to hide large DRAM random access latencies are proposed and implemented. The processing element has been implemented as a prototype accelerator peripheral in an embedded system for the iterative Gauss-Jacobi algorithm.

Paper Nr: 135
Title:

EFFICIENT SERIAL FLOATING-POINT CONSTANT DIVIDER STRUCTURE OF THE FORM 2P±1

Authors:

Karthik Mahesh Varadarajan

Abstract: Implementation specific computation modules hold the key to the success of fast DSP and Embedded systems. Exponential encoders, dedicated multipliers, barrel shifters and accumulators are common units available on DSPs. The family of constant divider circuits of the form 2p±1, which are useful for image processing, statistical processing like histograms etc., is the specific focus of this paper. This family is largely dominated by the Residue Number System (RNS), Petry and Srinivasan algorithms and the Shuo-Yen Robert-Li algorithm. While these algorithms offer various trade-offs in terms of accuracy, memory footprint, power consumption and timing behavior, none of these methods are suited for processing serialized inputs, dividend inputs with apriori unknown bit length and the circuits have to be replaced with change in input bit length. The circuit size also grows enormously for large input lengths along with a reduction in accuracy. These methods are suited only for integer division and are unsuited for extension to floating/fixed point division. In this paper a novel constant divider algorithm is offered, which overcomes the above mentioned limitations while handling arbitrary length, serial/ parallel data and producing full-precision, full-accuracy, floating point capable results with constant circuit requirements and comparable timing to state of the art methods.

Posters
Paper Nr: 46
Title:

ANALYSIS OF STATUS DATA UPDATE IN DYNAMICALLY CLUSTERED NETWORK-ON-CHIP MONITORING

Authors:

Ville Rantala and Teijo Lehtonen

Abstract: Monitoring and diagnostic systems are required in modern Network-on-Chip implementations to assure high performance and reliability. In this paper a dynamically clustered NoC monitoring structure for traffic monitoring is presented and issues concerning status data update intervals have been analyzed. The results show that status update interval protocol has influence to the overall performance.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

PLACEMENT OF HARDWARE TASKS ON FPGA USING THE BEES ALGORITHM

Authors:

Bassem Ouni and Ikbel Belaid

Abstract: The dynamic and partial reconfiguration in FPGA with heterogeneous resources is a challenge for the next years. It allows reconfiguring a specific hardware zone in FPGA while maintaining the activity of the remaining circuit’s part. This paper introduces a new approach about how to solve the problem of placement of the hardware tasks on the recent reconfigurable technology using the honey Bees Algorithm. This approach aims at performing a good placement by maximizing the efficiency of the used resources and reducing the task’s reconfiguration overheads. Experimental results show that the proposed method can perform a good placement of hardware tasks on the device by optimizing significantly the parameters of the cost function in terms of resources and execution time.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

PETRI NET BASED APPROACH TO TEST BENCH CONSTRUCTING FOR DATAPATH

Authors:

Andrei Karatkevich

Abstract: Testing a data path in a digital system such as a microcontroller requires checking every possible way of sending data between the functional units. This paper considers a task of generating a test bench for a given data path, which covers every way of data sending with minimized number of simulations of microinstructions. We present a method in which a data path ismodeled by a Petri net. The task of optimal test bench generation is formulated as a task of covering all transitions by a sequence with minimal length. It can be solved by finding certain T-invariant of the net and a firing sequence corresponding to it. The proposed method is illustrated by two case studies of testing data paths of simple processors.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

TOWARDS A SECURE ADDRESS SPACE SEPARATION FOR LOW POWER SENSOR NODES

Authors:

Oliver Stecklina

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are becoming more and more considered for application in real world systems such as automation control, critical infrastructure protection and the like. By going wireless these systems are no longer to be protected by fences and walls but need to take into account security of all their components. In this paper we discuss two alternatives for implementing isolation on a Micro Controller Unit (MCU). The first one is a pure software solution, i.e. a Hypervisor which comes with a reasonable performance penalty when applied for 16-bit RISC processor cores such as the TI MSP430. Since it is a pure software solution it can be applied to existing MCUs without any hardware modification. Our second approach is to use a Memory Protection Unit (MPU) realized in hardware, which is placed between the processing core and the resources of the sensor node. The MPU especially supports fine-grained isolation of the sensor node software and further reduces the performance penalty compared to the pure software solution.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

HIGH THROUGHPUT MEMORY-EFFICIENT VLSI DESIGNS FOR STRUCTURED LDPC DECODING

Authors:

Hrishikesh Sharma and Subhasis Das

Abstract: Low-density Parity Check(LDPC) codes have been in focus of intense research in Error-correction Coding in recent years. High throughput decoder design for them has been a big challenge for these codes. In this paper, we report the first scalable VLSI decoder design based on projective geometry (PG) structure of LDPC codes. The design is based on memory-efficient communication primitives known as perfect access sequences. A high-throughput variation of above design achieves a throughput of 620 Mbps, much higher than what communication standards require. The corresponding fully-parallel VLSI architecture was implemented on Xilinx LX110T FPGA, as well as on 90-nm SAED EDK90 CORE Cell Library from Synposys. We find that PG-based graphs indeed offer an exciting way of parallelizing this computation, and many others in future.