PECCS 2019 Abstracts


Area 1 - Intelligent Data Analysis and Processing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

Multi-radio Data Fusion for Indoor Localization using Bluetooth and WiFi

Authors:

Afaz U. Ahmed, Reza Arablouei, Frank de Hoog, Branislav Kusy and Raja Jurdak

Abstract: Location estimation through fusing the information obtainable from multiple radio systems can reduce the dependency on each system and improves the performance. Research on fusion-based indoor localization using WiFi and Bluetooth-low-energy (BLE) beacons has mostly been limited to training-based approaches. In this paper, we propose a training-free indoor localization technique using received signals from WiFi and BLE device. The proposed technique estimates the position of the user device by fusing the information that it gains regarding the position of the target from the WiFi channel state information (CSI) and the RSSI measurements of BLE beacons. We use the WiFi CSI to estimate the angle of arrival (AoA), which we then use in conjunction with the RSSI measurements from the BLE beacons to develop a multi-radio fusion framework for indoor localization. We use a weighted centroid localization method to obtain an initial position estimate from the RSSI measurements. The initial position estimation helps to resolve the ambiguities in the AoA. The proposed technique is based on maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) exploiting the probability density functions of the estimated AoA and the RSSI-induced distances. Simulation results show that the proposed technique improves the localization accuracy by 30% in a typical indoor environment compared with previous approaches.
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Short Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Analysis of a Business Environment using Burstiness Parameter: The Case of a Grocery Shop

Authors:

Andreas Ahrens, Ojaras Purvinis, Detlef Hartleb, Jelena Zaščerinska and Diana Micevičienė

Abstract: Nowadays, bursty business processes are part of our everyday life. Bursty business processes include such processes as selling and buying, too. One of the contemporary challenges business environment has to deal with is monitoring and controlling of burstiness in business processes. Monitoring and controlling of burstiness in business processes often leads to the optimization of business processes. Validation of the model for analysing buyers’ burstiness in business processes revealed the need in optimisation of the proposed model, as the elaborated model based on gap processes is complex for implementation, as well as for parameter estimation. For optimization of the model for analysing buyers’ burstiness in business process, different levels of burstiness in the process of buying are studied in this work. Different approaches to modelling buyers’ behaviours are presented and evaluated in this work, too. The novel contribution of this work is based on the estimation of burstiness. With the proposed solution the level of burstiness can be estimated by taking the mean value and the standard deviation of a gap sequence into account, which always exists for a given sequence. As a practical application, the cash register of a medium size grocery shop in Lithuania is analysed. The novelty of this paper is given by the comparison of different approaches to measuring burstiness in real process data. Directions of further research are proposed.
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Paper Nr: 5
Title:

Influence of Emotions on Software Developer Productivity

Authors:

Mohammed Anany, Heba Hussien, Sherif G. Aly and Nourhan Sakr

Abstract: The Software developer productivity is an important indicator that has attracted the attention of the industry over the years. It has been established that improving software productivity enhances the performance of organizations. Despite its importance, a full understanding of contextual factors and how they influence productivity is not attained. One such important factor is the developer’s emotions. In this paper, we conduct an experiment on 11 participants where they attempt to solve 10 ACM-style problems as we monitor their emotions and behaviour in the background. The experiments performed achieve an accuracy of 55.4% on the test set using a random forest classifier. There is room for multiple improvements such as increasing dataset size, performing class balancing, and utilizing different aggregation methods for the data. This paper opens a different track for experimentation relating to the relationship between emotions and software productivity. Achieving a better understanding of this relationship can aid further research that would utilize it to build context aware and pervasive systems that can automatically react to developers’ emotions when going through a low productivity phase and orient them towards emotions that are correlated with positive productivity.
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Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Estimation of Physical Activity Level and Ambient Condition Thresholds for Respiratory Health using Smartphone Sensors

Authors:

Chinazunwa Uwaoma, Gunjan Mansingh, William Pepper, Wenshi Lu and Siyu Xiang

Abstract: While physical activity has been described as a primary prevention against chronic diseases, strenuous physical exertion under adverse ambient conditions has also been reported as a major contributor to exacerbation of chronic respiratory conditions. Maintaining a balance by monitoring the type and the level of physical activities of affected individuals, could help in reducing the cost and burden of managing respiratory ailments. This paper explores the potentiality of motion sensors in Smartphones to estimate physical activity thresholds that could trigger symptoms of exercise-induced respiratory conditions (EiRCs). The focus is on the extraction of measurements from the embedded motion sensors to determine the activity level and the type of activity that is tolerable to individual’s respiratory health. The calculations are based on the correlation between Signal Magnitude Area (SMA) and Energy Expenditure (EE). We also consider the effect of changes in the ambient conditions – temperature and humidity, as contributing factors to respiratory distress during physical exercise. Real-time data collected from healthy individuals were used to demonstrate the potentiality of a mobile phone as tool to regulate the level of physical activities of individuals with EiRCs. We describe a practical situation where the experimental outcomes can be applied to promote good respiratory health.
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Area 2 - Mobile Computing Systems and Services

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Interdependent Multi-layer Spatial Temporal-based Caching in Heterogeneous Mobile Edge and Fog Networks

Authors:

Vu H. Huynh and Milena Radenkovic

Abstract: Applications and services hosted in the mobile edge/fog networks today (e.g., augmented reality, self-driving, and various cognitive applications) may suffer from limited network coverage and localized congestion due to dynamic mobility of users and surge of traffic demand. Mobile opportunistic caching at the edges is expected to be an effective solution for bringing content closer and improve the quality of service for mobile users. To fully exploit the edge/fog resources, the most popular contents should be identified and cached. Emerging research has shown significant importance of predicting content traffic patterns related to users’ mobility over time and locations which is a complex question and still not well-understood. This paper tackles this challenge by proposing K-order Markov chain-based fully-distributed multi-layer complex analytics and heuristics to predict the future trends of content traffic. More specifically, we propose the multilayer real-time predictive analytics based on historical temporal information (frequency, recency, betweenness) and spatial information (dynamic clustering, similarity, tie-strength) of the contents and the mobility patterns of contents’ subscribers. This enables better responsiveness to the rising of newly high popular contents and fading out of older contents over time and locations. We extensively evaluate our proposal against benchmark (TLRU) and competitive protocols (SocialCache, OCPCP, LocationCache) across a range of metrics over two vastly different complex temporal network topologies: random networks and scale-free networks (i.e. real connectivity Infocom traces) and use Foursquare dataset as a realistic content request patterns. We show that our caching framework consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in the face of dynamically changing topologies and content workloads as well as dynamic resource availability.
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Short Papers
Paper Nr: 4
Title:

Estimating Configuration Parameters of Pipelines for Accelerating N-Body Simulations with an FPGA using High-level Synthesis

Authors:

Tetsu Narumi and Akio Muramatsu

Abstract: In the era of the IoT (Internet of Things) and Edge computing, SoC (System on Chip) with an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is a suitable solution for embedded systems because it supports running rich operating systems on general-purpose CPUs, as well as the FPGA’s acceleration for specific computing. One problem of designing an accelerator on an FPGA is that optimization of the logic for the accelerator is not automatic and much trial and error is needed before attaining peak performance from the SoC. In this paper we propose a method to reduce the development time of the accelerator using N-body simulation as a target application. Based on the hardware resources needed for several pipelines of the accelerator and their performance estimation model, we can estimate how many pipelines can be implemented on an SoC. In addition, the amount of memory each pipeline requires for attaining maximum performance is suggested. Our model agreed with the actual calculation speed for different constraining conditions.
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Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Flaws Validation of Maze Mobility Model using Spatial-temporal Synthetic Mobility Metrics

Authors:

Nisrine Ibadah, Khalid Minaoui, Mohammed Rziza, Mohammed Oumsis and César Benavente-Peces

Abstract: Mobility modeling represents a critical task in mobile wireless networks to improve the overall throughput. This paper evaluates relevant spatial-temporal stochastic properties of the most frequently used synthetic mobility models compared to a new efficient mobility model named Maze Mobility Model (Maze MM). It imitates a real-life movement according to diverse mobility features, as spatial and temporal dependencies with also geographic restrictions. To demonstrate the efficiency of this new model, various metrics were validated such as; the speed decay problem, the density wave phenomenon, the spatial node distribution, the average neighbor percentage, and mobile neighbors range. Each mobility pattern may bear from diverse mobility flaws, as shown by network simulations. So, numerous metrics are employed to describe mobility features. The current research aims to deeply understand mobility features of Maze MM with the aim to deduce a definite judgment of each mobility metric, given that further this fact affects the whole network performances. The validation results are discussed to remark the effectiveness and robustness of Maze MM according to the validated mobility metrics.
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Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Two Approaches to Resource Allocation in Hybrid Fog and Cloud Systems

Authors:

Dariusz Gasior

Abstract: In this paper, two approaches to the hybrid fog and cloud computing environment are presented. The first is based on the assumption of centralized management performed by cloud, while the latter takes utilization of self-managing concept enabling distributed resource allocation carried by fogs. The appropriate mathematical models are introduced and the optimization problems are formulated. While the first concept turned out to be the mixed nonlinear programming, the second may be interpreted as the noncooperative game. The ideas of the possible solutions are briefly suggested.
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Area 3 - Sensor Networks: Software, Architectures and Applications 

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Security for Low-end Automotive Sensors: A Tire-pressure and Rain-light Sensors Case Study

Authors:

Adrian Musuroi, Bogdan Groza, Stefan Murvay and Horatiu Gurban

Abstract: In recent years, the security of in-vehicle buses and components has been extensively addressed, but only a few research works considered the security of low-end in-vehicle sensors. The main problem in addressing such components stems from the numerous constraints, both in terms of computational power, since most sensors are equipped with low-speed 8 bit controllers, and low bandwidth. In this work we use as a case study a tire-pressure sensor and a rain-light sensor. The first communicates over radio-frequency while the second uses a low-speed in-vehicle bus, both interfaces having a very low bandwidth and reduced packet size of only 64 bits. Under these constraints we discuss the design of a cryptographic security protocol based on an existing lightweight block cipher in order to assure both security and privacy objectives.
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Short Papers
Paper Nr: 3
Title:

Towards Continuous Sensor Operation: Modelling a Secured Smart Sensor in a Sparse Network Operated by Energy Harvesting

Authors:

Thomas W. Pieber, Benjamin Mößlang, Thomas Ulz and Christian Steger

Abstract: In modern society sensors are omnipresent. They gather information about their environment in order to optimize production flows, minimize energy usage, learn about the environment, or maximize the owner’s comfort. To achieve the desired goal in already existing buildings, sensors are introduced afterwards. These sensors might not be able to connect to a sensor network because of obstacles or user policies. If this happens, other mechanisms to create a network to gather the data need to be found. Additionally, these sensors should last for a long period and are therefore probably powered using energy harvesting methods. In this paper we present an approach for simulating the charging process of such sensors and connecting them to a network using mobile communication partners.
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Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Join Multiple Channels and IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH Protocol Use Effects on WSN Performance and Energy Efficiency

Authors:

Diego V. Queiroz, Ruan D. Gomes, Cesar Benavente-Peces, Iguatemi E. Fonseca and Marcelo S. Alencar

Abstract: The goal of this paper is analysing the use of the IEEE 802.15.4e standard MAC layer protocol Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode in the context of Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial IoT (IIoT) aimed at reducing narrow-band interferences and the multi-path fading impact on available channels by using frequency hopping, with network time synchronization to achieve low-power operation. In low disturbances environments using several channels provides the diversity benefits. However, using several channels requires channel scanning and switching leads to extra power consumption. It could be accepted in harsh environments (industrial), due to its influence on channels features, requiring more channels, and it is necessary to continuously hop seeking for the best one to achieve the best performance. Several experiments have been simulated and implemented in real testbeds the laboratory as first validation approach. The performance and energy efficiency of the entire network is analysed for different scheduling methods, packet transmission rates, number of used channels and guard time. The relevant conclusion showed in this investigation is that using all the available channels of the standard is not required to achieve the best joint-results given that, regardless the scheduling method used, considering a higher number channels requires a higher power consumption for channels quality exploration and packet reception rate decreases.
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Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Paradigm of Post-quantum Cryptography and Crypto-agility: Strategy Approach of Quantum-safe Techniques

Authors:

Olaf Grote, Andreas Ahrens and César Benavente-Peces

Abstract: General security protocols use cryptographic schemes which are not prepared against quantum attacks. Asymmetric public key cryptographic schemes based on well researched methods are defined as broken, from quantum computer perspective. In contrast, symmetric cryptographic schemes and there methods are considered quantum-safe. A new effective strategy is necessary with focusing on post-quantum cryptography for evaluating and researching new quantum-safe cryptographic principles and crypto-agility to update vulnerable security protocols.
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Paper Nr: 15
Title:

On Verify and Validate a Next Generation Automotive Communication Networka

Authors:

Sebastian Brunthaler, Thomas Waas and Markus Kucera

Abstract: As a result of the enormous growth in data traffic for autonomous driving, the conventional in-vehicle network is no longer sufficient and requires new types of network concepts in a vehicle. This part of the automobile is known as the next generation communication network. Since the new car-systems can be extended by various services at any time, the network must adapt dynamically to new requirements wherever possible. For example, data flow must be configured dynamically between new services. Also data rates will be much higher in the future than today. This is one of the main reasons why we need to search for new technologies for data transfer in vehicles. This is based on an in-vehicle ethernet network. The process of configuring networks automatically has been discussed several times in recent years. One of the next steps is verifying and validating the automatic configuration process during the development of the new communication network. This research paper identifies several ways to ensure the automatically generated network configuration leads to a secure system. To achieve that, other parts of the company’s enterprise IT architecture and network technologies, the conventional vehicle network and other options for verification and validation are analysed.
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Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Multi-aspect Evaluation Method for Digital Pointing Devices

Authors:

Nils Büscher, Daniel Gis, Sebastian Stieber and Christian Haubelt

Abstract: For decades the computer mouse has been used as the most common input device for laptops and computers alike. However for speeches a presentation remote with a laser pointer was used because they allowed the presenter more freedom. With the emergence of small and lightweight inertial sensors, a new type of presentation remotes becomes popular. These remotes use inertial sensors to move a digital pointer allowing presenters to show things on more than one screen or use enhancement methods like highlighting a region. Using inertial sensors however proves to be a difficult task and can lead to problems with the usability of such devices. When developing such systems, the designer faces the problem that no method for quantifying the usability of pointing devices based on inertial sensors is available. In the paper at hand, we propose an evaluation method consisting of three different tests to assess the manageability, speed and precision of digital pointing devices for a measurable comparison. Additionally, we conducted an evaluation to show that our tests reflect the subjective assessment from the users. Our quantitative test results showed a strong correlation to the qualitative subjective assessment from the users.
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