PEC 2018 Abstracts


Area 1 - Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

On Effectiveness of Compressed File Transfers to/from the Cloud: An Experimental Evaluation

Authors:

Armen Dzhagaryan and Aleksandar Milenković

Abstract: An increasing reliance on cloud and distributed processing of scientific and big data in commercial, academic, and government institutions necessitate new approaches to optimize file transfers. Lossless data compression and decompression is essential in improving the overall effectiveness of file transfers between edge devices and the cloud by increasing communication throughput, reducing connection latency, making effective use of cloud storage, and reducing costs. This paper experimentally evaluates effectiveness of common and emerging general-purpose compression utilities for file transfers between edge devices and the cloud. The utilities are evaluated in terms of throughput and costs during representative file transfers between a workstation and the cloud, while varying LAN network conditions. The results show that the optimal compressed transfer modes improve both upload and download throughputs. For uploads, the peak improvements range from 5.16 to 25.6 times relative to uncompressed file uploads, and from 1.33 to 17.4 times relative to the default compressed uploads. For downloads, the peak improvements range from 3.82 to 19.57 times relative to uncompressed downloads, and from 1.8 to 13.8 times relative to the default compressed downloads. In addition, the best performing compressed transfer modes reduce the costs related to cloud computing.
Download

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 4
Title:

Towards Cooperative Self-adapting Activity Recognition

Authors:

Andreas Jahn, Sven Tomforde, Michel Morold, Klaus David and Bernhard Sick

Abstract: Activity Recognition (AR) aims at deriving high-level knowledge about human activities and the situation in the human’s environment. Although being a well-established research field, several basic issues are still insufficiently solved, including extensibility of an AR system at runtime, adaption of classification models to a very specific behaviour of a user, or utilising of all information available, including other AR systems within range. To overcome these limitations, the cooperation of AR systems including sporadic interaction with humans and consideration of other information sources is proposed in this article as a basic new way to lead to a new generation of “smart” AR systems. Cooperation of AR systems will take place at several stages of an AR chain: at the level of recognised motion primitives (e.g. arm movement), at the level of detected low-level activities (e.g. writing), and/or at the level of identified high-level activities (e.g. participating in a meeting). This article outlines a possible architectural concept, describes the resulting challenges, and proposes a research roadmap towards cooperative AR systems.
Download

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

smARTworks: A Multi-sided Context-aware Platform for the Smart Museum

Authors:

Salvatore Biondi, Vincenzo Catania, Salvatore Monteleone, Maurizio Palesi and Davide Patti

Abstract: The technologies characterizing the Internet of Things domain allow realizing smart environments based on user-oriented localized services. In the last years, IoT has gradually acquired an important role also in the Cultural Heritage domain, in particular for Smart Museums, through the introduction of several solutions aimed to ensure immersive and interactive cultural experiences. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Sided Platform called smARTworks which relies on smartphones localization capabilities and Beacon devices to automatically provide the user with multimedia contents related to nearby artworks. Moreover, the solution is able to collect users’ opinions to provide a series of methods useful for the management of cultural items.
Download

Area 2 - Pervasive Computing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Gap Structure and Characteristic Properties for Analysing Buyers’ Burstiness in e-Business Process

Authors:

Andreas Ahrens, Jelena Zaščerinska and Ojaras Purvinis

Abstract: Optimization of e-business process allows increasing earning profits in e-business. Models based on gap processes for the analysis of buyers’ burstiness in e-business process have attracted an increased research interest in order to succeed in the optimization of e-business process. The research aim is to find model approaches for creating gap structures and the description of their characteristic properties with a required accuracy underpinning elaboration of a new research question. Interdisciplinary research was carried out within the present investigation. The results of the present research show gap structures and gap characteristic properties. In e-business, gap structure means a range of shop visitors who do not buy any product. The gap characteristic properties are defined as gap density and gap distribution function. The empirical study involved eight experts from different countries to validate the model and to project the research. The findings of the study allow drawing the conclusions on the experts‘ positive evaluation of the mathematical model for analysis of buyers’ burstiness in e-business process. The novel contribution of the paper is revealed by the comparison of model approaches for creating gap structures and the description of their characteristic properties with a required accuracy. Directions of further research are proposed.
Download

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

A Lightweight Authentication Protocol for V2G Networks in Smart Grid

Authors:

Luis Fernando Arias Roman, Paulo R. L. Gondim and Jaime Lloret Mauri

Abstract: In a Smart Grid, a Vehicle to Grid (V2G) network aims to provide mobile distributed capacity of battery storage, helping to minimize the dependency of non-renewable energy sources. In this network, the privacy and anonymity of users’ identity, confidentiality of the transmitted data and location of the Electric Vehicle (EV) must be guaranteed. This article proposes a lightweight authentication protocol devoted to the protection of EV identities, prevention against the tracking of the vehicle and confidentiality of transmitted data. In a performance comparison with other protocols, the results from computing and communications performance analyses are better. The lower consumption of resources allows contributing for reducing signalling congestion and saving bandwidth. The protocol protects from various known attacks and security analysis shows that the protocol achieves the security goals.
Download

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

Energy Efficient On-Sensor Processing for Online Activity Recognition

Authors:

Florian Grützmacher, Albert Hein, Benjamin Beichler, Polichronis Lepidis, Rainer Dorsch, Thomas Kirste and Christian Haubelt

Abstract: In sensor-based online activity recognition, the communication of sensor samples at high data rates has a great impact on the energy consumptions of wearables. In our work we investigate the idea of calculating data reducing stages of activity recognition systems on wireless sensor nodes in order to reduce the amount of transmitted data and thus the overall energy consumption. In our experiments, this approach could reduce the energy consumption of a wireless sensor node by up to 27%. Since the benefit of this approach highly depends on design parameters of the activity recognition, we introduce an energy trade-off model for wireless sensor nodes to estimate energy-savings of application specific configurations at design time. By calibrating this model for our wireless sensor node, we could achieve an accuracy of more than 99% in our experiments.
Download

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Cyber Risk Assessment for Insurability Verification

Authors:

David Nicolas Bartolini, César Benavente-Peces and Andreas Ahrens

Abstract: Nowadays, cyber-risks are an important aspect on the business agenda in every company, but they are difficult to analyse. Cyber-insurance is considered as appropriate means to absorb financial losses caused by computer security breaches. Cyber security management in a company requires the inter-action of all corporate divisions. To ensure security of wide level at an enterprise, decision-makers must take the necessary measures to avert the dangers of cyber-attacks or, following an attack, take the right steps to manage a damage at the lowest possible level. Within the scope of insurability assessments, Risk Engineers must analyse these measures to perform a cyber insurance acceptance test.
Download

Area 3 - Embedded Systems Design

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Mixed Precision Tuning with Salsa

Authors:

Nasrine Damouche and Matthieu Martel

Abstract: Precision tuning consists of finding the least floating-point formats enabling a program to compute some results with an accuracy requirement. In mixed precision, this problem has a huge combinatory since any value may have its own format. Precision tuning has given rise to the development of several tools that aim at guarantying a desired precision on the outputs of programs doing floating-point computations, by minimizing the initial, over-estimated, precision of the inputs and intermediary results. In this article, we present an extension of our tool for numerical accuracy, Salsa, which performs precision tuning. Originally, Salsa is a program transformation tool based on static analysis and which improves the accuracy of floating-point computations. We have extended Salsa with a precision tuning static analysis. We present experimental results showing the efficiency of this new feature as well as the additional gains that we obtain by performing Salsa’s program transformation before the precision tuning analysis. We experiment our tool on a set of programs coming from various domains like embedded systems and numerical analysis.
Download

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

An Application- and Platform-agnostic Runtime Management Framework for Multicore Systems

Authors:

Graeme M. Bragg, Charles Leech, Domenico Balsamo, James J. Davis, Eduardo Wachter, Geoff V. Merrett, George A. Constantinides and Bashir M. Al-Hashimi

Abstract: Heterogeneous multiprocessor systems have increased in complexity to provide both high performance and energy efficiency for a diverse range of applications. This motivates the need for a standard framework that enables the management, at runtime, of software applications executing on these processors. This paper proposes the first fully application- and platform-agnostic framework for runtime management approaches that control and optimise software applications and hardware resources. This is achieved by separating the system into three distinct layers connected by an API and cross-layer constructs called knobs and monitors. The proposed framework also supports the management of applications that are executing concurrently on heterogeneous platforms. The operation of the proposed framework is experimentally validated using a basic runtime controller and two heterogeneous platforms, to show how it is application- and platform-agnostic and easy to use. Furthermore, the management of concurrently executing applications through the framework is demonstrated. Finally, two recently reported runtime management approaches are implemented to demonstrate how the framework enables their operation and comparison. The energy and latency overheads introduced by the framework have been quantified and an open-source implementation has been releaseda.
Download

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Opening up New Fail-safe Layers in Distributed Vehicle Computer Systems

Authors:

Johannes Büttner, Markus Kucera and Thomas Waas

Abstract: The automotive industry currently faces several challenges, including a growing complexity in system architecture. At the same time, the task load as well as the needs for performance increase. To address this problem, the A3Fa research project evaluates scalable distributed concepts for future vehicle system architectures. These can be seen as comparable to cluster-computing systems, which are applied in high-performance or high-availability use-cases. Methods used in such scenarios will also be important features in future vehicle architectures such as horizontal application scalability, application load balancing and reallocation, as well as functionality upgrades triggered by the user. This paper focuses on concepts and methods for the reliability of applications and hardware in future in-vehicle distributed system architectures. It is argued that future automotive computing systems will evolve towards enterprise IT systems similar to today’s data centers. Furthermore, it is stated these vehicle systems can benefit greatly from IT systems. In particular, the safety against failure of functions and hardware in such systems is discussed. For this purpose, various of such mechanisms used in information technology are investigated. A layer-based classification is proposed, representing the different fail-safe levels.
Download